Comparison of the respiratory and hemodynamic responses of healthy subjects to exercise in three different protocols

H J Bogaard, H H Woltjer, A R van Keimpema, R A Serra, P E Postmus, P M de Vries

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Although the importance of exercise testing has been well established, standardization of protocols is lacking. In the current study three protocols were compared with respect to respiratory and hemodynamic variables at submaximal and peak exercise. Fifteen healthy young men underwent three maximal exercise tests using the following protocols: (I) an increase of 30 Watt, every three minutes; (II) an increase of 10 Watt, every minute; (III) a continuous load increase of 10 Watt/min. Respiratory measurements were made of oxygen uptake (VO2), carbon dioxide output (VCO2), minute ventilation (VE) and tidal volume (VT). Hemodynamic measurements were made of ECG, heart rate (HR), blood pressure and stroke volume (SV). The latter variable was measured by means of electrical impedence cardiography (EIC). There were no differences in mean maximum load or peak-VO2 between protocols I, II and III. The course of SV was similar in all protocols, i.e. an increase of about 30% until 100 Watt, with a subsequent stabilization until maximum load. All other hemodynamic measurements were similar in both protocols, too. Significant differences were found in submaximal values of VO2 and VCO2. There were no differences in other gas-exchange variables at any moment during exercise. With respect to the VO2max or the hemodynamic response to exercise, any protocol can be used. For the evaluation of submaximal exercise, the protocol that has been used has to be taken into account. Differences at these levels are not related to differences in hemodynamic responses.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)293-8
Number of pages6
JournalOccupational Medicine
Volume46
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Aug 1996

Cite this

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title = "Comparison of the respiratory and hemodynamic responses of healthy subjects to exercise in three different protocols",
abstract = "Although the importance of exercise testing has been well established, standardization of protocols is lacking. In the current study three protocols were compared with respect to respiratory and hemodynamic variables at submaximal and peak exercise. Fifteen healthy young men underwent three maximal exercise tests using the following protocols: (I) an increase of 30 Watt, every three minutes; (II) an increase of 10 Watt, every minute; (III) a continuous load increase of 10 Watt/min. Respiratory measurements were made of oxygen uptake (VO2), carbon dioxide output (VCO2), minute ventilation (VE) and tidal volume (VT). Hemodynamic measurements were made of ECG, heart rate (HR), blood pressure and stroke volume (SV). The latter variable was measured by means of electrical impedence cardiography (EIC). There were no differences in mean maximum load or peak-VO2 between protocols I, II and III. The course of SV was similar in all protocols, i.e. an increase of about 30{\%} until 100 Watt, with a subsequent stabilization until maximum load. All other hemodynamic measurements were similar in both protocols, too. Significant differences were found in submaximal values of VO2 and VCO2. There were no differences in other gas-exchange variables at any moment during exercise. With respect to the VO2max or the hemodynamic response to exercise, any protocol can be used. For the evaluation of submaximal exercise, the protocol that has been used has to be taken into account. Differences at these levels are not related to differences in hemodynamic responses.",
keywords = "Adult, Body Mass Index, Cardiography, Impedance, Exercise/physiology, Exercise Test/methods, Hemodynamics, Humans, Male, Pulmonary Gas Exchange, Reference Standards, Respiration",
author = "Bogaard, {H J} and Woltjer, {H H} and {van Keimpema}, {A R} and Serra, {R A} and Postmus, {P E} and {de Vries}, {P M}",
year = "1996",
month = "8",
language = "English",
volume = "46",
pages = "293--8",
journal = "Occupational Medicine",
issn = "0962-7480",
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Comparison of the respiratory and hemodynamic responses of healthy subjects to exercise in three different protocols. / Bogaard, H J; Woltjer, H H; van Keimpema, A R; Serra, R A; Postmus, P E; de Vries, P M.

In: Occupational Medicine, Vol. 46, No. 4, 08.1996, p. 293-8.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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T1 - Comparison of the respiratory and hemodynamic responses of healthy subjects to exercise in three different protocols

AU - Bogaard, H J

AU - Woltjer, H H

AU - van Keimpema, A R

AU - Serra, R A

AU - Postmus, P E

AU - de Vries, P M

PY - 1996/8

Y1 - 1996/8

N2 - Although the importance of exercise testing has been well established, standardization of protocols is lacking. In the current study three protocols were compared with respect to respiratory and hemodynamic variables at submaximal and peak exercise. Fifteen healthy young men underwent three maximal exercise tests using the following protocols: (I) an increase of 30 Watt, every three minutes; (II) an increase of 10 Watt, every minute; (III) a continuous load increase of 10 Watt/min. Respiratory measurements were made of oxygen uptake (VO2), carbon dioxide output (VCO2), minute ventilation (VE) and tidal volume (VT). Hemodynamic measurements were made of ECG, heart rate (HR), blood pressure and stroke volume (SV). The latter variable was measured by means of electrical impedence cardiography (EIC). There were no differences in mean maximum load or peak-VO2 between protocols I, II and III. The course of SV was similar in all protocols, i.e. an increase of about 30% until 100 Watt, with a subsequent stabilization until maximum load. All other hemodynamic measurements were similar in both protocols, too. Significant differences were found in submaximal values of VO2 and VCO2. There were no differences in other gas-exchange variables at any moment during exercise. With respect to the VO2max or the hemodynamic response to exercise, any protocol can be used. For the evaluation of submaximal exercise, the protocol that has been used has to be taken into account. Differences at these levels are not related to differences in hemodynamic responses.

AB - Although the importance of exercise testing has been well established, standardization of protocols is lacking. In the current study three protocols were compared with respect to respiratory and hemodynamic variables at submaximal and peak exercise. Fifteen healthy young men underwent three maximal exercise tests using the following protocols: (I) an increase of 30 Watt, every three minutes; (II) an increase of 10 Watt, every minute; (III) a continuous load increase of 10 Watt/min. Respiratory measurements were made of oxygen uptake (VO2), carbon dioxide output (VCO2), minute ventilation (VE) and tidal volume (VT). Hemodynamic measurements were made of ECG, heart rate (HR), blood pressure and stroke volume (SV). The latter variable was measured by means of electrical impedence cardiography (EIC). There were no differences in mean maximum load or peak-VO2 between protocols I, II and III. The course of SV was similar in all protocols, i.e. an increase of about 30% until 100 Watt, with a subsequent stabilization until maximum load. All other hemodynamic measurements were similar in both protocols, too. Significant differences were found in submaximal values of VO2 and VCO2. There were no differences in other gas-exchange variables at any moment during exercise. With respect to the VO2max or the hemodynamic response to exercise, any protocol can be used. For the evaluation of submaximal exercise, the protocol that has been used has to be taken into account. Differences at these levels are not related to differences in hemodynamic responses.

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KW - Body Mass Index

KW - Cardiography, Impedance

KW - Exercise/physiology

KW - Exercise Test/methods

KW - Hemodynamics

KW - Humans

KW - Male

KW - Pulmonary Gas Exchange

KW - Reference Standards

KW - Respiration

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JO - Occupational Medicine

JF - Occupational Medicine

SN - 0962-7480

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ER -