BACKGROUND: Complement factor C5 can either aggravate or attenuate the T-helper type 2 (TH2) immune response and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in murine models of allergic asthma. The effect of C5 during the effector phase of allergen-induced asthma is ill-defined. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the effect of C5 blockade during the effector phase on the pulmonary TH2 response and AHR in a house dust mite (HDM) driven murine asthma model. METHODS: BALB/c mice were sensitized and challenged repeatedly with HDM via the airways to induce allergic lung inflammation. Sensitized mice received twice weekly injections with a blocking anti-C5 or control antibody 24 h before the first challenge. RESULTS: HDM challenge in sensitized mice resulted in elevated C5a levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Anti-C5 administered to sensitized mice prior to the first HDM challenge prevented this rise in C5a, but did not influence the influx of eosinophils or neutrophils. While anti-C5 did not impact the recruitment of CD4 T cells upon HDM challenge, it reduced the proportion of TH2 cells recruited to the airways, attenuated IL-4 release by regional lymph nodes restimulated with HDM ex vivo and mitigated the plasma IgE response. Anti-C5 did not affect innate lymphoid cell (ILC) proliferation or group 2 ILC (ILC2) differentiation. Anti-C5 attenuated HDM induced AHR in the absence of an effect on lung histopathology, mucus production or vascular leak. CONCLUSIONS: Generation of C5a during the effector phase of HDM induced allergic lung inflammation contributes to TH2 cell differentiation and AHR without impacting ILC2 cells.