Contactins are a group of cell adhesion molecules that are mainly expressed in the brain and play pivotal roles in the organization of axonal domains, axonal guidance, neuritogenesis, neuronal development, synapse formation and plasticity, axo-glia interactions and neural regeneration. Contactins comprise a family of six members. Their absence leads to malformed axons and impaired nerve conduction. Contactin mediated protein complex formation is critical for the organization of the axon in early central nervous system development. Mutations and differential expression of contactins have been identified in neuro-developmental or neurological disorders. Taken together, contactins are extensively studied in the context of nervous system development. This review summarizes the physiological roles of all six members of the Contactin family in neurodevelopment as well as their involvement in neurological/neurodevelopmental disorders.