Background: Although most patients with medically refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) experience seizure freedom after anterior temporal lobectomy, approximately 40% may continue to have seizures. Functional network integration, as measured with preoperative resting-state functional MRI, may help stratify patients who are more likely to experience postoperative seizure freedom. Purpose: To relate preoperative resting-state functional MRI and surgical outcome in patients with medically refractory TLE. Materials and Methods: Data from patients with medically intractable TLE were retrospectively analyzed. Patients underwent preoperative resting-state functional MRI between March 2010 and April 2013 and subsequent unilateral anterior temporal lobectomy. Postoperative seizure-free status was categorized using the Engel Epilepsy Surgery Outcome Scale. Global and regional resting-state functional MRI network properties on preoperative functional MRI scans related to integration were calculated and statistically compared between patients who experienced complete postoperative seizure freedom (Engel class IA) and all others (Engel class IB to class IV) using t tests and multiple logistic regression. Results: Forty patients (mean age, 34 years 6 15 [standard deviation]; 21 female) were evaluated. Preoperative global network integration was different (P = .01) between patients who experienced seizure freedom after surgery and all other patients, with 9% lower leaf fraction and 10% lower tree hierarchy in patients with ongoing seizures. Preoperative regional network integration in the contralateral temporoinsular region was different (P = .04) between patients in these two groups. Specifically, the group-level leaf proportion was 59% lower in the entorhinal cortex, 73% lower in the inferior temporal gyrus, 43% lower in the temporal pole, and 69% lower in the insula in patients with ongoing seizures after surgery. When using multivariate regression, contralateral temporoinsular leaf proportion (P = .002) and epilepsy duration (P = .04) were predictive of postoperative seizure freedom, while age (P . .70) and age at seizure onset (P . .50) were not. Conclusion: Lower network integration globally and involving the contralateral temporoinsular cortex on preoperative resting-state functional MRI scans is associated with ongoing postoperative seizures in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy.