Purpose: Blockade of CTLA-4 by antibodies has potentiated antitumor T-cell responses in both preclinical models and clinical trials. However, treatment with CTLA-4 blocking antibodies is associated with autoimmune and inflammatory side effects. In this study, we propose a novel administration method for CTLA-4 blocking antibodies as monotherapy. Experimental Design: We use different preclinical mouse models of cancer to investigate the local administration of CTLA-4 blocking antibody and its effect on cancer progression and the antitumor T-cell response. Results: By injecting the antibodies in a subcutaneous slow-release delivery formulation in the tumor area, we show that an eight-fold lower dose of antibody is as effective in inducing tumor eradication as systemic delivery. A lower dose and slow release of the antibody results in thousand-fold decreased levels of antibody in the serum, reducing adverse events and the risk of autoimmunity. The main target and effector cells of the CTLA-4 blockade treatment in the studied tumor models are tumor-specific endogenous CD8+ T cells that are capable of eradicating also distant tumors, whereas CD4+ T cells do not play a prominent role in the antibody-mediated tumor eradication. Conclusions: Injecting CTLA-4 blocking antibody in a slow-release formulation close to the tumor is an effective way of activating the antitumor T-cell response. This administration method is associated with very low serum levels of antibody, which decreases the risk of treatment-induced side effects. These results call for exploration of a similar delivery principle in clinical settings. © 2013 American Association for Cancer Research.
Fransen, M. F., van der Sluis, T. C., Ossendorp, F., Arens, R., & Melief, C. J. M. (2013). Controlled local delivery of CTLA-4 blocking antibody induces CD8 + T-cell-dependent tumor eradication and decreases risk of toxic side effects. Clinical Cancer Research, 19(19), 5381-5389. https://doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-12-0781