Background. The clinical results of radiotherapy and endoscopic cordectomy for T1a glottic carcinoma are reported to be similar, but costs of both treatments may differ. Therefore, we retrospectively evaluated the costs, voice quality, quality of life, and clinical results of both treatments. Methods. Costs and effects from the first visit up to 2 years of follow-up were calculated, based on chart data of 35 and 54 patients who were treated with curative intent for T1a glottic carcinoma from 1995 to 1999 with radiotherapy and endoscopic cordectomy, respectively. Voice quality and quality of life were evaluated by means of patient questionnaires. Results. Total costs (in Euros) of radiotherapy and CO2-laser cordectomy were €8322 and €4434, respectively, including the costs of treating possible recurrences. The effects of both treatments were equal, including voice quality and quality of life. Conclusions. We conclude that endoscopic cordectomy is an efficient alternative for radiotherapy for these patients.