Corrigendum to “Conservative management of retinoblastoma: Challenging orthodoxy without compromising the state of metastatic grace. “Alive, with good vision and no comorbidity”” [Prog. Retina Eye Res. 73 (2019) 100764] (Progress in Retinal and Eye Research (2019) 73, (S1350946218300739), (10.1016/j.preteyeres.2019.05.005))

Francis L. Munier*, Maja Beck-Popovic, Guillermo L. Chantada, David Cobrinik, Tero T. Kivelä, Dietmar Lohmann, Philippe Maeder, Annette C. Moll, Angel Montero Carcaboso, Alexandre Moulin, Paula Schaiquevich, Ciara Bergin, Paul J. Dyson, Susan Houghton, Francesco Puccinelli, Yvan Vial, Marie Claire Gaillard, Christina Stathopoulos

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalErratumAcademicpeer-review


The authors regret that Science Direct is not formatted to display the full content of the paper synopsis. This is now fixed with the publication of this corrigendum. List of contents 1. Introduction2. Epidemiology 2.1. Incidence2.2. Prevalence2.3. Predisposing factors for sporadic retinoblastoma3. Diagnosis 3.1. Presenting features3.2. Clinical examination and ancillary testing 3.2.1. Fundus documentation and fluorescein angiography3.2.2. Ultrasonic biomicroscopy (UBM)3.2.3. Optic coherence tomography (OCT)3.2.4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)3.3. Classifications 3.3.1. Grouping of the eye at presentation (RE, IIRC, ICRB, COG, TNMH)3.3.2. Patient staging at presentation (IRSS, TNMH)3.3.3. Classification of retinoblastoma at relapse (RSU classification)3.4. Differential diagnosis3.5. Prenatal diagnosis of retinoblastoma3.6. Trilateral retinoblastoma 3.6.1. Incidence, early detection and screening3.6.2. Influence of the retinoblastoma treatment on the incidence of trilateral retinoblastoma3.6.3. Improved treatment of trilateral retinoblastoma: high-dose chemotherapy3.6.4. Differential diagnosis: pineal cysts3.7. Metastatic retinoblastoma 3.7.1. Diagnosis of metastatic retinoblastoma3.7.2. Treatment of metastatic retinoblastoma3.7.3. Influence of conservative retinoblastoma treatment in the occurrence of metastasis3.8. Second primary neoplasms 3.8.1. Incidence and mortality of second primary neoplasms3.8.2. Characteristics of secondary primary neoplasms3.8.3. Factors influencing the risk of secondary primary neoplasms Genetic predisposition3.8.3.2. Influence of therapy3. Radiotherapy3. Chemotherapy3.8.4. Long-term follow-up in heritable retinoblastoma survivors 4. Retinoblastoma genesis 4.1. Mutational inactivation of the RB1 gene initiates retinoblastoma tumorigenesis4.2. Most retinoblastomas show more than two-hits4.3. RB1 mutations initiate tumorigenesis in the retinoblastoma cell-of-origin 4.3.1. First hints pointing towards a photoreceptor cell-of-origin4.3.2. Efforts to identify the retinoblastoma origin using genetically engineered mice4.3.3. Circumstantial and direct evidence for a cone precursor cell-of-origin4.3.4. Reconciling the cone precursor cell-of-origin with apparently contradictory observations4.4. Collaboration between RB1 inactivation and the cell-of-origin circuitry5. Retinoblastoma genetics and genetic counseling 5.1. Genetic presentations of retinoblastoma 5.1.1. Inherited heritable retinoblastoma (familial retinoblastoma) Familial retinoblastoma with complete retinoblastoma5.1.1.2. Familial retinoblastoma with incomplete penetrance5.1.2. Isolated heritable retinoblastoma Isolated bilateral retinoblastoma (full expressivity) Isolated retinoblastoma with genomic 13q14 deletion (reduced expressivity)5.1.3. Mosaic retinoblastoma5.1.4. Non-heritable retinoblastoma Isolated unilateral retinoblastoma with somatic biallelic RB1 mutation5.1.4.2. Retinoblastoma without alterations of the RB1 gene 5.2. Genetic counseling and testing 5.2.1. Familial retinoblastoma5.2.2. Isolated bilateral retinoblastoma5.2.3. Isolated unilateral retinoblastoma 6. Clinical growth and seeding patterns 6.1. Retinoblastoma growth patterns 6.1.1. Classic growth patterns of primary retinoblastoma: endophytic, exophytic, mixed growth6.1.2. Rare variants of retinoblastoma Cavitary retinoblastoma6.1.2.2. Diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma6.1.2.3. Diffuse anterior retinoblastoma 6.2. Intra-ocular seeding 6.2.1. Vitreous seeding6.2.2. Retrohyaloid seeding6.2.3. Subretinal seeding6.2.4. Aqueous seeding Prevalence of anterior chamber seeding6.2.4.2. Prevalence of anterior uvea invasion6.2.4.3. Invasion mechanisms of the aqueous humor 6.3. Retinoma/retinocytoma and phthisis bulbi 6.3.1. Prevalence and relationship with retinoblastoma6.3.2. Clinical features and risk of malignant transformation. 7. Conservative management of intraocular retinoblastoma 7.1. Pharmacokinetics 7.1.1. Intravenous drug delivery7.1.2. Intra-arterial drug delivery Intraocular distribution of intra-arterial melphalan and topotecan7.1.2.2. Systemic adverse effects of intra-arterial delivered drugs7.1.3. Intravitreal drug delivery Intraocular distribution of intravitreal melphalan7.1.3.2. Intraocular distribution of intravitreal topotecan7.1.4. Intracameral drug delivery7.1.5. Periocular drug delivery7.1.6. Suprachoroidal drug delivery7.2. Treatment modalities 7.2.1. Intravenous chemotherapy Drug regimen and number of cycles7.2.1.2. Indications Current indications7. Potential future indications 7.2.2. Treatment outcomes of intravenous chemotherapy Relapse rate and role of consolidation by focal treatments7.2.2.2. Eye preservation without external beam radiotherapy7.2.3. Chemotherapy-related toxicity of intravenous chemotherapy Expected toxicities7.2.3.2. Long-term toxicities7.2.4. Intra-arterial chemotherapy Drug regimen and number of cycles7.2.4.2. Indications Current indications7. Potential future indications7.2.4.3. Treatment outcomes Recurrence rate and salvage therapy7. Eye preservation without external beam radiotherapy7.2.4.4. Adverse effects7.2.5. Intravitreal chemotherapy Drug regimen and number of injections7.2.5.2. Safety7.2.5.3. Treatment outcomes7.2.5.4. Adverse effects7.2.6. Intracameral chemotherapy Treatment outcomes7.2.6.2. Treatment-related adverse effects7.2.6.3. Potential alternatives to intracameral chemotherapy for aqueous seeding7.2.7. Periocular chemotherapy7.2.8. Focal treatments Cryotherapy7.2.8.2. Hyperthermia7.2.8.3. Photocoagulation7.2.8.4. Brachytherapy 7.3. Disease and treatment-related complications 7.3.1. Amblyopia7.3.2. Cataract Incidence7.3.2.2. Cataract surgery7.3.3. Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment Incidence7.3.3.2. Surgical repair7.3.4. Secondary neovascularization7.3.5. Chorioretinal complications Intravitreal melphalan-induced chorioretinopathy Clinical presentation, classification system and incidence7. Risk factors associated with intravitreal melphalan-induced chorioretinopathy Intravitreal concentration7. Para-vitreal injections7. Intraocular pigmentation7. Concomitant drug interactions Choroidal occlusive vasculopathy Clinical presentation, classification system and incidence. Factors associated with choroidal occlusive vasculopathy 7.4. Evaluation of quality of life8. Future directions and conclusion 8.1. Animal models8.2. Gene therapy8.3. Cell-of-origin targeted therapy8.4. Personalized therapy and liquid biopsy8.5. New drugs or combinations of drugs8.6. New Galenic formulation of known drugs8.7. Conclusion

Original languageEnglish
Article number100857
JournalProgress in Retinal and Eye Research
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2020

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