Current Vitamin D status in European and Middle East countries and strategies to prevent Vitamin D deficiency: A position statement of the European Calcified Tissue Society

on behalf of the Working Group on Vitamin D of the European Calcified Tissue Society

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Vitamin D deficiency (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) <50 nmol/L or 20 ng/mL) is common in Europe and the Middle East. It occurs in <20% of the population in Northern Europe, in 30–60% in Western, Southern and Eastern Europe and up to 80% in Middle East countries. Severe deficiency (serum 25(OH)D <30 nmol/L or 12 ng/mL) is found in >10% of Europeans. The European Calcified Tissue Society (ECTS) advises that the measurement of serum 25(OH) D be standardized, for example, by the Vitamin D Standardization Program. Risk groups include young children, adolescents, pregnant women, older people (especially the institutionalized) and non-Western immigrants. Consequences of Vitamin D deficiency include mineralization defects and lower bone mineral density causing fractures. Extra-skeletal consequences may be muscle weakness, falls and acute respiratory infection, and are the subject of large ongoing clinical trials. The ECTS advises to improve Vitamin D status by food fortification and the use of Vitamin D supplements in risk groups. Fortification of foods by adding Vitamin D to dairy products, bread and cereals can improve the Vitamin D status of the whole population, but quality assurance monitoring is needed to prevent intoxication. Specific risk groups such as infants and children up to 3 years, pregnant women, older persons and non-Western immigrants should routinely receive Vitamin D supplements. Future research should include genetic studies to better define individual vulnerability for Vitamin D deficiency, and Mendelian randomization studies to address the effect of Vitamin D deficiency on long-term non-skeletal outcomes such as cancer.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)P23-P54
JournalEuropean Journal of Endocrinology
Volume180
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Cite this

@article{d03ea72dbb4841aa87ce31b95afc3507,
title = "Current Vitamin D status in European and Middle East countries and strategies to prevent Vitamin D deficiency: A position statement of the European Calcified Tissue Society",
abstract = "Vitamin D deficiency (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) <50 nmol/L or 20 ng/mL) is common in Europe and the Middle East. It occurs in <20{\%} of the population in Northern Europe, in 30–60{\%} in Western, Southern and Eastern Europe and up to 80{\%} in Middle East countries. Severe deficiency (serum 25(OH)D <30 nmol/L or 12 ng/mL) is found in >10{\%} of Europeans. The European Calcified Tissue Society (ECTS) advises that the measurement of serum 25(OH) D be standardized, for example, by the Vitamin D Standardization Program. Risk groups include young children, adolescents, pregnant women, older people (especially the institutionalized) and non-Western immigrants. Consequences of Vitamin D deficiency include mineralization defects and lower bone mineral density causing fractures. Extra-skeletal consequences may be muscle weakness, falls and acute respiratory infection, and are the subject of large ongoing clinical trials. The ECTS advises to improve Vitamin D status by food fortification and the use of Vitamin D supplements in risk groups. Fortification of foods by adding Vitamin D to dairy products, bread and cereals can improve the Vitamin D status of the whole population, but quality assurance monitoring is needed to prevent intoxication. Specific risk groups such as infants and children up to 3 years, pregnant women, older persons and non-Western immigrants should routinely receive Vitamin D supplements. Future research should include genetic studies to better define individual vulnerability for Vitamin D deficiency, and Mendelian randomization studies to address the effect of Vitamin D deficiency on long-term non-skeletal outcomes such as cancer.",
author = "{on behalf of the Working Group on Vitamin D of the European Calcified Tissue Society} and Paul Lips and Cashman, {Kevin D.} and Christel Lamberg-Allardt and Bischoff-Ferrari, {Heike Annette} and Barbara Obermayer-Pietsch and Bianchi, {Maria Luisa} and Jan Stepan and Fuleihan, {Ghada El-Hajj} and Roger Bouillon",
year = "2019",
doi = "10.1530/EJE-18-0736",
language = "English",
volume = "180",
pages = "P23--P54",
journal = "European Journal of Endocrinology",
issn = "0804-4643",
publisher = "BioScientifica Ltd.",
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}

Current Vitamin D status in European and Middle East countries and strategies to prevent Vitamin D deficiency: A position statement of the European Calcified Tissue Society. / on behalf of the Working Group on Vitamin D of the European Calcified Tissue Society.

In: European Journal of Endocrinology, Vol. 180, No. 4, 2019, p. P23-P54.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Current Vitamin D status in European and Middle East countries and strategies to prevent Vitamin D deficiency: A position statement of the European Calcified Tissue Society

AU - on behalf of the Working Group on Vitamin D of the European Calcified Tissue Society

AU - Lips, Paul

AU - Cashman, Kevin D.

AU - Lamberg-Allardt, Christel

AU - Bischoff-Ferrari, Heike Annette

AU - Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara

AU - Bianchi, Maria Luisa

AU - Stepan, Jan

AU - Fuleihan, Ghada El-Hajj

AU - Bouillon, Roger

PY - 2019

Y1 - 2019

N2 - Vitamin D deficiency (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) <50 nmol/L or 20 ng/mL) is common in Europe and the Middle East. It occurs in <20% of the population in Northern Europe, in 30–60% in Western, Southern and Eastern Europe and up to 80% in Middle East countries. Severe deficiency (serum 25(OH)D <30 nmol/L or 12 ng/mL) is found in >10% of Europeans. The European Calcified Tissue Society (ECTS) advises that the measurement of serum 25(OH) D be standardized, for example, by the Vitamin D Standardization Program. Risk groups include young children, adolescents, pregnant women, older people (especially the institutionalized) and non-Western immigrants. Consequences of Vitamin D deficiency include mineralization defects and lower bone mineral density causing fractures. Extra-skeletal consequences may be muscle weakness, falls and acute respiratory infection, and are the subject of large ongoing clinical trials. The ECTS advises to improve Vitamin D status by food fortification and the use of Vitamin D supplements in risk groups. Fortification of foods by adding Vitamin D to dairy products, bread and cereals can improve the Vitamin D status of the whole population, but quality assurance monitoring is needed to prevent intoxication. Specific risk groups such as infants and children up to 3 years, pregnant women, older persons and non-Western immigrants should routinely receive Vitamin D supplements. Future research should include genetic studies to better define individual vulnerability for Vitamin D deficiency, and Mendelian randomization studies to address the effect of Vitamin D deficiency on long-term non-skeletal outcomes such as cancer.

AB - Vitamin D deficiency (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) <50 nmol/L or 20 ng/mL) is common in Europe and the Middle East. It occurs in <20% of the population in Northern Europe, in 30–60% in Western, Southern and Eastern Europe and up to 80% in Middle East countries. Severe deficiency (serum 25(OH)D <30 nmol/L or 12 ng/mL) is found in >10% of Europeans. The European Calcified Tissue Society (ECTS) advises that the measurement of serum 25(OH) D be standardized, for example, by the Vitamin D Standardization Program. Risk groups include young children, adolescents, pregnant women, older people (especially the institutionalized) and non-Western immigrants. Consequences of Vitamin D deficiency include mineralization defects and lower bone mineral density causing fractures. Extra-skeletal consequences may be muscle weakness, falls and acute respiratory infection, and are the subject of large ongoing clinical trials. The ECTS advises to improve Vitamin D status by food fortification and the use of Vitamin D supplements in risk groups. Fortification of foods by adding Vitamin D to dairy products, bread and cereals can improve the Vitamin D status of the whole population, but quality assurance monitoring is needed to prevent intoxication. Specific risk groups such as infants and children up to 3 years, pregnant women, older persons and non-Western immigrants should routinely receive Vitamin D supplements. Future research should include genetic studies to better define individual vulnerability for Vitamin D deficiency, and Mendelian randomization studies to address the effect of Vitamin D deficiency on long-term non-skeletal outcomes such as cancer.

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UR - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30721133

U2 - 10.1530/EJE-18-0736

DO - 10.1530/EJE-18-0736

M3 - Article

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SN - 0804-4643

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ER -