OBJECTIVE: To design and demonstrate a customized tool to generate histologic sections of the prostate that directly correlate with needle-based optical coherence tomography pullback measurements.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A customized tool was created to hold the prostatectomy specimens during optical coherence tomography measurements and formalin fixation. Using the tool, the prostate could be sliced into slices of 4 mm thickness through the optical coherence tomography measurement trajectory. In this way, whole-mount pathology slides were produced in exactly the same location as the optical coherence tomography measurements were performed. Full 3-dimensional optical coherence tomography pullbacks were fused with the histopathology slides using the 3-dimensional imaging software AMIRA, and images were compared.
RESULTS: A radical prostatectomy was performed in a patient (age: 68 years, prostate-specific antigen: 6.0 ng/mL) with Gleason score 3 + 4 = 7 in 2/5 biopsy cores on the left side (15%) and Gleason score 3 + 4 = 7 in 1/5 biopsy cores on the right side (5%). Histopathology after radical prostatectomy showed an anterior located pT2cNx adenocarcinoma (Gleason score 3 + 4 = 7). Histopathological prostate slides were produced using the customized tool for optical coherence tomography measurements, fixation, and slicing of the prostate specimens. These slides correlated exactly with the optical coherence tomography images. Various structures, for example, Gleason 3 + 4 prostate cancer, stroma, healthy glands, and cystic atrophy with septae, could be identified both on optical coherence tomography and on the histopathological prostate slides.
CONCLUSION: We successfully designed and applied a customized tool to process radical prostatectomy specimens to improve the coregistration of whole mount histology sections to fresh tissue optical coherence tomography pullback measurements. This technique will be crucial in validating the results of optical coherence tomography imaging studies with histology and can easily be applied in other solid tissues as well, for example, lung, kidney, breast, and liver. This will help improve the efficacy of optical coherence tomography in cancer detection and staging in solid organs.