Histopathologic grading of prostate cancer using Gleason patterns (GPs) is subject to a large inter-observer variability, which may result in suboptimal treatment of patients. With the introduction of digitization and whole-slide images of prostate biopsies, computer-aided grading becomes feasible. Computer-aided grading has the potential to improve histopathological grading and treatment selection for prostate cancer. Automated detection of GPs and determination of the grade groups (GG) using a convolutional neural network. In total, 96 prostate biopsies from 38 patients are annotated on pixel-level. Automated detection of GP 3 and GP ≥ 4 in digitized prostate biopsies is performed by re-training the Inception-v3 convolutional neural network (CNN). The outcome of the CNN is subsequently converted into probability maps of GP ≥ 3 and GP ≥ 4, and the GG of the whole biopsy is obtained according to these probability maps. Differentiation between non-atypical and malignant (GP ≥ 3) areas resulted in an accuracy of 92% with a sensitivity and specificity of 90 and 93%, respectively. The differentiation between GP ≥ 4 and GP ≤ 3 was accurate for 90%, with a sensitivity and specificity of 77 and 94%, respectively. Concordance of our automated GG determination method with a genitourinary pathologist was obtained in 65% (κ = 0.70), indicating substantial agreement. A CNN allows for accurate differentiation between non-atypical and malignant areas as defined by GPs, leading to a substantial agreement with the pathologist in defining the GG.
Lucas, M., Jansen, I., Savci-Heijink, C. D., Meijer, S. L., de Boer, O. J., van Leeuwen, T. G., ... Marquering, H. A. (2019). Deep learning for automatic Gleason pattern classification for grade group determination of prostate biopsies. Virchows Archiv, 475(1), 77-83. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00428-019-02577-x