Defining the aesthetic range of normal symmetry for lip and nose features in 5-year-old children using the computer-based program symnose

Nirvana S. S. Kornmann, Robin A. Tan, Frans J. Mulder, Joseph T. Hardwicke, Bruce M. Richard, Brian B. Pigott, Ronald W. Pigott

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Objective: To provide a normal comparison group against which to judge symmetry results after cleft surgery and to introduce the thin lip correction (TLC) feature in SymNose. A lip–aspect ratio algorithm has been added to the latest version of SymNose to compensate for the higher degree of overlap in thicker lips when compared to thin lips. Design: Retrospective analysis of symmetry in healthy participants, using the computer-based program SymNose on both anteroposterior (AP) and base view images. Photographs of 91 noncleft children were traced twice by 3 independent investigators experienced with SymNose. Participants: Five-year-old healthy participants from a local state school in Tavistock (West Devon, United Kingdom). Main Outcome Measure: Asymmetry expressed as the perimeter mismatch percentage for nose and lip features on AP view images and for nose features on base view images. Results: The perimeter mismatch reference range for the nose (AP view) was 2.65% to 30.91%, for the lip 2.13% to 15.44%, for the nose (base view) 1.69% to 14.84%, for the nostrils 4.68% to 26.6%, and for the width–height ratio 1.15% to 1.80%. The perimeter mismatch percentage for the lip without TLC was significantly higher compared to the perimeter mismatch percentage with TLC (P < .001). Conclusion: This article provides a noncleft reference range for all perimeters drawn from SymNose against which to compare results after cleft surgery at 5 years of age. Furthermore, it shows the importance of correcting for variance in lip volume per child.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)799-805
JournalCleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal
Volume56
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Cite this

Kornmann, Nirvana S. S. ; Tan, Robin A. ; Mulder, Frans J. ; Hardwicke, Joseph T. ; Richard, Bruce M. ; Pigott, Brian B. ; Pigott, Ronald W. / Defining the aesthetic range of normal symmetry for lip and nose features in 5-year-old children using the computer-based program symnose. In: Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal. 2019 ; Vol. 56, No. 6. pp. 799-805.
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title = "Defining the aesthetic range of normal symmetry for lip and nose features in 5-year-old children using the computer-based program symnose",
abstract = "Objective: To provide a normal comparison group against which to judge symmetry results after cleft surgery and to introduce the thin lip correction (TLC) feature in SymNose. A lip–aspect ratio algorithm has been added to the latest version of SymNose to compensate for the higher degree of overlap in thicker lips when compared to thin lips. Design: Retrospective analysis of symmetry in healthy participants, using the computer-based program SymNose on both anteroposterior (AP) and base view images. Photographs of 91 noncleft children were traced twice by 3 independent investigators experienced with SymNose. Participants: Five-year-old healthy participants from a local state school in Tavistock (West Devon, United Kingdom). Main Outcome Measure: Asymmetry expressed as the perimeter mismatch percentage for nose and lip features on AP view images and for nose features on base view images. Results: The perimeter mismatch reference range for the nose (AP view) was 2.65{\%} to 30.91{\%}, for the lip 2.13{\%} to 15.44{\%}, for the nose (base view) 1.69{\%} to 14.84{\%}, for the nostrils 4.68{\%} to 26.6{\%}, and for the width–height ratio 1.15{\%} to 1.80{\%}. The perimeter mismatch percentage for the lip without TLC was significantly higher compared to the perimeter mismatch percentage with TLC (P < .001). Conclusion: This article provides a noncleft reference range for all perimeters drawn from SymNose against which to compare results after cleft surgery at 5 years of age. Furthermore, it shows the importance of correcting for variance in lip volume per child.",
author = "Kornmann, {Nirvana S. S.} and Tan, {Robin A.} and Mulder, {Frans J.} and Hardwicke, {Joseph T.} and Richard, {Bruce M.} and Pigott, {Brian B.} and Pigott, {Ronald W.}",
year = "2019",
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Defining the aesthetic range of normal symmetry for lip and nose features in 5-year-old children using the computer-based program symnose. / Kornmann, Nirvana S. S.; Tan, Robin A.; Mulder, Frans J.; Hardwicke, Joseph T.; Richard, Bruce M.; Pigott, Brian B.; Pigott, Ronald W.

In: Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal, Vol. 56, No. 6, 2019, p. 799-805.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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T1 - Defining the aesthetic range of normal symmetry for lip and nose features in 5-year-old children using the computer-based program symnose

AU - Kornmann, Nirvana S. S.

AU - Tan, Robin A.

AU - Mulder, Frans J.

AU - Hardwicke, Joseph T.

AU - Richard, Bruce M.

AU - Pigott, Brian B.

AU - Pigott, Ronald W.

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N2 - Objective: To provide a normal comparison group against which to judge symmetry results after cleft surgery and to introduce the thin lip correction (TLC) feature in SymNose. A lip–aspect ratio algorithm has been added to the latest version of SymNose to compensate for the higher degree of overlap in thicker lips when compared to thin lips. Design: Retrospective analysis of symmetry in healthy participants, using the computer-based program SymNose on both anteroposterior (AP) and base view images. Photographs of 91 noncleft children were traced twice by 3 independent investigators experienced with SymNose. Participants: Five-year-old healthy participants from a local state school in Tavistock (West Devon, United Kingdom). Main Outcome Measure: Asymmetry expressed as the perimeter mismatch percentage for nose and lip features on AP view images and for nose features on base view images. Results: The perimeter mismatch reference range for the nose (AP view) was 2.65% to 30.91%, for the lip 2.13% to 15.44%, for the nose (base view) 1.69% to 14.84%, for the nostrils 4.68% to 26.6%, and for the width–height ratio 1.15% to 1.80%. The perimeter mismatch percentage for the lip without TLC was significantly higher compared to the perimeter mismatch percentage with TLC (P < .001). Conclusion: This article provides a noncleft reference range for all perimeters drawn from SymNose against which to compare results after cleft surgery at 5 years of age. Furthermore, it shows the importance of correcting for variance in lip volume per child.

AB - Objective: To provide a normal comparison group against which to judge symmetry results after cleft surgery and to introduce the thin lip correction (TLC) feature in SymNose. A lip–aspect ratio algorithm has been added to the latest version of SymNose to compensate for the higher degree of overlap in thicker lips when compared to thin lips. Design: Retrospective analysis of symmetry in healthy participants, using the computer-based program SymNose on both anteroposterior (AP) and base view images. Photographs of 91 noncleft children were traced twice by 3 independent investigators experienced with SymNose. Participants: Five-year-old healthy participants from a local state school in Tavistock (West Devon, United Kingdom). Main Outcome Measure: Asymmetry expressed as the perimeter mismatch percentage for nose and lip features on AP view images and for nose features on base view images. Results: The perimeter mismatch reference range for the nose (AP view) was 2.65% to 30.91%, for the lip 2.13% to 15.44%, for the nose (base view) 1.69% to 14.84%, for the nostrils 4.68% to 26.6%, and for the width–height ratio 1.15% to 1.80%. The perimeter mismatch percentage for the lip without TLC was significantly higher compared to the perimeter mismatch percentage with TLC (P < .001). Conclusion: This article provides a noncleft reference range for all perimeters drawn from SymNose against which to compare results after cleft surgery at 5 years of age. Furthermore, it shows the importance of correcting for variance in lip volume per child.

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