Assessment of the volume status by blood pressure (BP) monitoring is difficult, since baroreflex control of BP makes it insensitive to blood loss up to about one liter. We hypothesized that a machine learning model recognizes the progression of central hypovolemia toward presyncope by extracting information of the noninvasive blood pressure waveform parametrized through principal component analysis. This was tested in healthy volunteers exposed to simulated hemorrhage by lower body negative pressure (LBNP). Fifty-six healthy volunteers were subjected to progressive central hypovolemia. A support vector machine was trained on the blood pressure waveform. Three classes of progressive stages of hypovolemia were defined. The model was optimized for the number of principal components and regularization parameter for penalizing misclassification (cost): C. Model performance was expressed as accuracy, mean squared error (MSE), and kappa statistic (inter-rater agreement). Forty-six subjects developed presyncope of which 41 showed an increase in model classification severity from baseline to presyncope. In five of the remaining nine subjects (1 was excluded) it stagnated. Classification of samples during baseline and end-stage LBNP had the highest accuracy (95% and 50%, respectively). Baseline and first stage of LBNP demonstrated the lowest MSE (0.01 respectively 0.32). Model MSE and accuracy did not improve for C values exceeding 0.01. Adding more than five principal components did not further improve accuracy or MSE. Increment in kappa halted after 10 principal components had been added. Automated feature extraction of the blood pressure waveform allows modeling of progressive hypovolemia with a support vector machine. The model distinguishes classes between baseline and presyncope.
van der Ster, B. J. P., Westerhof, B. E., Stok, W. J., & van Lieshout, J. J. (2018). Detecting central hypovolemia in simulated hypovolemic shock by automated feature extraction with principal component analysis. Physiological Reports, 6(22), [e13895]. https://doi.org/10.14814/phy2.13895