PURPOSE: In primary prostate cancer (PCa) patients, accurate staging and histologic grading are crucial to guide treatment decisions. 18F-DCFPyL (PSMA)-PET/CT has been successfully introduced for (re)staging PCa, showing high accuracy to localise PCa in lymph nodes and/or osseous structures. The diagnostic performance of 18F-DCFPyL-PET/CT in localizing primary PCa within the prostate gland was assessed, allowing for PSMA-guided targeted-prostate biopsy.
METHODS: Thirty patients with intermediate-/high-risk primary PCa were prospectively enrolled between May 2018 and May 2019 and underwent 18F-DCFPyL-PET/CT prior to robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). Two experienced and blinded nuclear medicine physicians assessed tumour localisation within the prostate gland on PET/CT, using a 12-segment mapping model of the prostate. The same model was used by a uro-pathologist for the RARP specimens. Based on PET/CT imaging, a potential biopsy recommendation was given per patient, based on the size and PET-intensity of the suspected PCa localisations. The biopsy recommendation was correlated to final histopathology in the RARP specimen. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) for clinically significant PCa (csPCa, Gleason score ≥ 3 + 4 = 7) were assessed.
RESULTS: The segments recommended for potential targeted biopsy harboured csPCA in 28/30 patients (93%), and covered the highest Gleason score PCa segment in 26/30 patient (87%). Overall, 122 of 420 segments (29.0%) contained csPCa at final histopathological examination. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV for csPCa per segment using 18F-DCFPyL-PET/CT were 61.4%, 88.3%, 68.1% and 84.8%, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: When comparing the PCa-localisation on 18F-DCFPyL-PET/CT with the RARP specimens, an accurate per-patient detection (93%) and localisation of csPCa was found. Thus, 18F-DCFPyL-PET/CT potentially allows for accurate PSMA-targeted biopsy.