Determinants of anxiety in elite athletes: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Simon M. Rice, Kate Gwyther, Olga Santesteban-Echarri, David Baron, Paul Gorczynski, Vincent Gouttebarge, Claudia L. Reardon, Mary E. Hitchcock, Brian Hainline, Rosemary Purcell

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To identify and quantify determinants of anxiety symptoms and disorders experienced by elite athletes. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: Five online databases (PubMed, SportDiscus, PsycINFO, Scopus and Cochrane) were searched up to November 2018 to identify eligible citations. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES: Articles were included if they were published in English, were quantitative studies and measured a symptom-level anxiety outcome in competing or retired athletes at the professional (including professional youth), Olympic or collegiate/university levels. RESULTS AND SUMMARY: We screened 1163 articles; 61 studies were included in the systematic review and 27 of them were suitable for meta-analysis. Overall risk of bias for included studies was low. Athletes and non-athletes had no differences in anxiety profiles (d=-0.11, p=0.28). Pooled effect sizes, demonstrating moderate effects, were identified for (1) career dissatisfaction (d=0.45; higher anxiety in dissatisfied athletes), (2) gender (d=0.38; higher anxiety in female athletes), (3) age (d=-0.34; higher anxiety for younger athletes) and (4) musculoskeletal injury (d=0.31; higher anxiety for injured athletes). A small pooled effect was found for recent adverse life events (d=0.26)-higher anxiety in athletes who had experienced one or more recent adverse life events. CONCLUSION: Determinants of anxiety in elite populations broadly reflect those experienced by the general population. Clinicians should be aware of these general and athlete-specific determinants of anxiety among elite athletes.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)722-730
JournalBritish journal of sports medicine
Volume53
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019
Externally publishedYes

Cite this

Rice, S. M., Gwyther, K., Santesteban-Echarri, O., Baron, D., Gorczynski, P., Gouttebarge, V., ... Purcell, R. (2019). Determinants of anxiety in elite athletes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. British journal of sports medicine, 53(11), 722-730. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2019-100620
Rice, Simon M. ; Gwyther, Kate ; Santesteban-Echarri, Olga ; Baron, David ; Gorczynski, Paul ; Gouttebarge, Vincent ; Reardon, Claudia L. ; Hitchcock, Mary E. ; Hainline, Brian ; Purcell, Rosemary. / Determinants of anxiety in elite athletes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. In: British journal of sports medicine. 2019 ; Vol. 53, No. 11. pp. 722-730.
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abstract = "OBJECTIVE: To identify and quantify determinants of anxiety symptoms and disorders experienced by elite athletes. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: Five online databases (PubMed, SportDiscus, PsycINFO, Scopus and Cochrane) were searched up to November 2018 to identify eligible citations. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES: Articles were included if they were published in English, were quantitative studies and measured a symptom-level anxiety outcome in competing or retired athletes at the professional (including professional youth), Olympic or collegiate/university levels. RESULTS AND SUMMARY: We screened 1163 articles; 61 studies were included in the systematic review and 27 of them were suitable for meta-analysis. Overall risk of bias for included studies was low. Athletes and non-athletes had no differences in anxiety profiles (d=-0.11, p=0.28). Pooled effect sizes, demonstrating moderate effects, were identified for (1) career dissatisfaction (d=0.45; higher anxiety in dissatisfied athletes), (2) gender (d=0.38; higher anxiety in female athletes), (3) age (d=-0.34; higher anxiety for younger athletes) and (4) musculoskeletal injury (d=0.31; higher anxiety for injured athletes). A small pooled effect was found for recent adverse life events (d=0.26)-higher anxiety in athletes who had experienced one or more recent adverse life events. CONCLUSION: Determinants of anxiety in elite populations broadly reflect those experienced by the general population. Clinicians should be aware of these general and athlete-specific determinants of anxiety among elite athletes.",
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Rice, SM, Gwyther, K, Santesteban-Echarri, O, Baron, D, Gorczynski, P, Gouttebarge, V, Reardon, CL, Hitchcock, ME, Hainline, B & Purcell, R 2019, 'Determinants of anxiety in elite athletes: a systematic review and meta-analysis' British journal of sports medicine, vol. 53, no. 11, pp. 722-730. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2019-100620

Determinants of anxiety in elite athletes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. / Rice, Simon M.; Gwyther, Kate; Santesteban-Echarri, Olga; Baron, David; Gorczynski, Paul; Gouttebarge, Vincent; Reardon, Claudia L.; Hitchcock, Mary E.; Hainline, Brian; Purcell, Rosemary.

In: British journal of sports medicine, Vol. 53, No. 11, 2019, p. 722-730.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

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AU - Rice, Simon M.

AU - Gwyther, Kate

AU - Santesteban-Echarri, Olga

AU - Baron, David

AU - Gorczynski, Paul

AU - Gouttebarge, Vincent

AU - Reardon, Claudia L.

AU - Hitchcock, Mary E.

AU - Hainline, Brian

AU - Purcell, Rosemary

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N2 - OBJECTIVE: To identify and quantify determinants of anxiety symptoms and disorders experienced by elite athletes. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: Five online databases (PubMed, SportDiscus, PsycINFO, Scopus and Cochrane) were searched up to November 2018 to identify eligible citations. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES: Articles were included if they were published in English, were quantitative studies and measured a symptom-level anxiety outcome in competing or retired athletes at the professional (including professional youth), Olympic or collegiate/university levels. RESULTS AND SUMMARY: We screened 1163 articles; 61 studies were included in the systematic review and 27 of them were suitable for meta-analysis. Overall risk of bias for included studies was low. Athletes and non-athletes had no differences in anxiety profiles (d=-0.11, p=0.28). Pooled effect sizes, demonstrating moderate effects, were identified for (1) career dissatisfaction (d=0.45; higher anxiety in dissatisfied athletes), (2) gender (d=0.38; higher anxiety in female athletes), (3) age (d=-0.34; higher anxiety for younger athletes) and (4) musculoskeletal injury (d=0.31; higher anxiety for injured athletes). A small pooled effect was found for recent adverse life events (d=0.26)-higher anxiety in athletes who had experienced one or more recent adverse life events. CONCLUSION: Determinants of anxiety in elite populations broadly reflect those experienced by the general population. Clinicians should be aware of these general and athlete-specific determinants of anxiety among elite athletes.

AB - OBJECTIVE: To identify and quantify determinants of anxiety symptoms and disorders experienced by elite athletes. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: Five online databases (PubMed, SportDiscus, PsycINFO, Scopus and Cochrane) were searched up to November 2018 to identify eligible citations. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES: Articles were included if they were published in English, were quantitative studies and measured a symptom-level anxiety outcome in competing or retired athletes at the professional (including professional youth), Olympic or collegiate/university levels. RESULTS AND SUMMARY: We screened 1163 articles; 61 studies were included in the systematic review and 27 of them were suitable for meta-analysis. Overall risk of bias for included studies was low. Athletes and non-athletes had no differences in anxiety profiles (d=-0.11, p=0.28). Pooled effect sizes, demonstrating moderate effects, were identified for (1) career dissatisfaction (d=0.45; higher anxiety in dissatisfied athletes), (2) gender (d=0.38; higher anxiety in female athletes), (3) age (d=-0.34; higher anxiety for younger athletes) and (4) musculoskeletal injury (d=0.31; higher anxiety for injured athletes). A small pooled effect was found for recent adverse life events (d=0.26)-higher anxiety in athletes who had experienced one or more recent adverse life events. CONCLUSION: Determinants of anxiety in elite populations broadly reflect those experienced by the general population. Clinicians should be aware of these general and athlete-specific determinants of anxiety among elite athletes.

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Rice SM, Gwyther K, Santesteban-Echarri O, Baron D, Gorczynski P, Gouttebarge V et al. Determinants of anxiety in elite athletes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. British journal of sports medicine. 2019;53(11):722-730. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2019-100620