Developing retinal biomarkers for the earliest stages of Alzheimer's disease: What we know, what we don't, and how to move forward

Jessica Alber, Danielle Goldfarb, Louisa I. Thompson, Edmund Arthur, Kimberly Hernandez, Derrick Cheng, Delia Cabrera DeBuc, Francesca Cordeiro, Leonardo Provetti-Cunha, Jurre den Haan, Gregory P. van Stavern, Stephen P. Salloway, Stuart Sinoff, Peter J. Snyder

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

The last decade has seen a substantial increase in research focused on the identification, development, and validation of diagnostic and prognostic retinal biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Sensitive retinal biomarkers may be advantageous because they are cost and time efficient, non-invasive, and present a minimal degree of patient risk and a high degree of accessibility. Much of the work in this area thus far has focused on distinguishing between symptomatic AD and/or mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and cognitively normal older adults. Minimal work has been done on the detection of preclinical AD, the earliest stage of AD pathogenesis characterized by the accumulation of cerebral amyloid absent clinical symptoms of MCI or dementia. The following review examines retinal structural changes, proteinopathies, and vascular alterations that have been proposed as potential AD biomarkers, with a focus on studies examining the earliest stages of disease pathogenesis. In addition, we present recommendations for future research to move beyond the discovery phase and toward validation of AD risk biomarkers that could potentially be used as a first step in a multistep screening process for AD risk detection.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)229-243
JournalAlzheimers & Dementia
Volume16
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2020

Cite this

Alber, J., Goldfarb, D., Thompson, L. I., Arthur, E., Hernandez, K., Cheng, D., ... Snyder, P. J. (2020). Developing retinal biomarkers for the earliest stages of Alzheimer's disease: What we know, what we don't, and how to move forward. Alzheimers & Dementia, 16(1), 229-243. https://doi.org/10.1002/alz.12006
Alber, Jessica ; Goldfarb, Danielle ; Thompson, Louisa I. ; Arthur, Edmund ; Hernandez, Kimberly ; Cheng, Derrick ; DeBuc, Delia Cabrera ; Cordeiro, Francesca ; Provetti-Cunha, Leonardo ; den Haan, Jurre ; van Stavern, Gregory P. ; Salloway, Stephen P. ; Sinoff, Stuart ; Snyder, Peter J. / Developing retinal biomarkers for the earliest stages of Alzheimer's disease: What we know, what we don't, and how to move forward. In: Alzheimers & Dementia. 2020 ; Vol. 16, No. 1. pp. 229-243.
@article{f3a5ceaff0104bb5a2939e81a1714fef,
title = "Developing retinal biomarkers for the earliest stages of Alzheimer's disease: What we know, what we don't, and how to move forward",
abstract = "The last decade has seen a substantial increase in research focused on the identification, development, and validation of diagnostic and prognostic retinal biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Sensitive retinal biomarkers may be advantageous because they are cost and time efficient, non-invasive, and present a minimal degree of patient risk and a high degree of accessibility. Much of the work in this area thus far has focused on distinguishing between symptomatic AD and/or mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and cognitively normal older adults. Minimal work has been done on the detection of preclinical AD, the earliest stage of AD pathogenesis characterized by the accumulation of cerebral amyloid absent clinical symptoms of MCI or dementia. The following review examines retinal structural changes, proteinopathies, and vascular alterations that have been proposed as potential AD biomarkers, with a focus on studies examining the earliest stages of disease pathogenesis. In addition, we present recommendations for future research to move beyond the discovery phase and toward validation of AD risk biomarkers that could potentially be used as a first step in a multistep screening process for AD risk detection.",
keywords = "Alzheimer's disease, amyloid, biomarkers, early detection, optical coherence tomography, preclinical AD, retina",
author = "Jessica Alber and Danielle Goldfarb and Thompson, {Louisa I.} and Edmund Arthur and Kimberly Hernandez and Derrick Cheng and DeBuc, {Delia Cabrera} and Francesca Cordeiro and Leonardo Provetti-Cunha and {den Haan}, Jurre and {van Stavern}, {Gregory P.} and Salloway, {Stephen P.} and Stuart Sinoff and Snyder, {Peter J.}",
year = "2020",
doi = "10.1002/alz.12006",
language = "English",
volume = "16",
pages = "229--243",
journal = "Alzheimers & Dementia",
issn = "1552-5260",
publisher = "Elsevier",
number = "1",

}

Alber, J, Goldfarb, D, Thompson, LI, Arthur, E, Hernandez, K, Cheng, D, DeBuc, DC, Cordeiro, F, Provetti-Cunha, L, den Haan, J, van Stavern, GP, Salloway, SP, Sinoff, S & Snyder, PJ 2020, 'Developing retinal biomarkers for the earliest stages of Alzheimer's disease: What we know, what we don't, and how to move forward' Alzheimers & Dementia, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 229-243. https://doi.org/10.1002/alz.12006

Developing retinal biomarkers for the earliest stages of Alzheimer's disease: What we know, what we don't, and how to move forward. / Alber, Jessica; Goldfarb, Danielle; Thompson, Louisa I.; Arthur, Edmund; Hernandez, Kimberly; Cheng, Derrick; DeBuc, Delia Cabrera; Cordeiro, Francesca; Provetti-Cunha, Leonardo; den Haan, Jurre; van Stavern, Gregory P.; Salloway, Stephen P.; Sinoff, Stuart; Snyder, Peter J.

In: Alzheimers & Dementia, Vol. 16, No. 1, 2020, p. 229-243.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Developing retinal biomarkers for the earliest stages of Alzheimer's disease: What we know, what we don't, and how to move forward

AU - Alber, Jessica

AU - Goldfarb, Danielle

AU - Thompson, Louisa I.

AU - Arthur, Edmund

AU - Hernandez, Kimberly

AU - Cheng, Derrick

AU - DeBuc, Delia Cabrera

AU - Cordeiro, Francesca

AU - Provetti-Cunha, Leonardo

AU - den Haan, Jurre

AU - van Stavern, Gregory P.

AU - Salloway, Stephen P.

AU - Sinoff, Stuart

AU - Snyder, Peter J.

PY - 2020

Y1 - 2020

N2 - The last decade has seen a substantial increase in research focused on the identification, development, and validation of diagnostic and prognostic retinal biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Sensitive retinal biomarkers may be advantageous because they are cost and time efficient, non-invasive, and present a minimal degree of patient risk and a high degree of accessibility. Much of the work in this area thus far has focused on distinguishing between symptomatic AD and/or mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and cognitively normal older adults. Minimal work has been done on the detection of preclinical AD, the earliest stage of AD pathogenesis characterized by the accumulation of cerebral amyloid absent clinical symptoms of MCI or dementia. The following review examines retinal structural changes, proteinopathies, and vascular alterations that have been proposed as potential AD biomarkers, with a focus on studies examining the earliest stages of disease pathogenesis. In addition, we present recommendations for future research to move beyond the discovery phase and toward validation of AD risk biomarkers that could potentially be used as a first step in a multistep screening process for AD risk detection.

AB - The last decade has seen a substantial increase in research focused on the identification, development, and validation of diagnostic and prognostic retinal biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Sensitive retinal biomarkers may be advantageous because they are cost and time efficient, non-invasive, and present a minimal degree of patient risk and a high degree of accessibility. Much of the work in this area thus far has focused on distinguishing between symptomatic AD and/or mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and cognitively normal older adults. Minimal work has been done on the detection of preclinical AD, the earliest stage of AD pathogenesis characterized by the accumulation of cerebral amyloid absent clinical symptoms of MCI or dementia. The following review examines retinal structural changes, proteinopathies, and vascular alterations that have been proposed as potential AD biomarkers, with a focus on studies examining the earliest stages of disease pathogenesis. In addition, we present recommendations for future research to move beyond the discovery phase and toward validation of AD risk biomarkers that could potentially be used as a first step in a multistep screening process for AD risk detection.

KW - Alzheimer's disease

KW - amyloid

KW - biomarkers

KW - early detection

KW - optical coherence tomography

KW - preclinical AD

KW - retina

UR - https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=85077754548&origin=inward

UR - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31914225

U2 - 10.1002/alz.12006

DO - 10.1002/alz.12006

M3 - Review article

VL - 16

SP - 229

EP - 243

JO - Alzheimers & Dementia

JF - Alzheimers & Dementia

SN - 1552-5260

IS - 1

ER -