Development and validation of a short food questionnaire to screen for low protein intake in community-dwelling older adults: The Protein Screener 55+ (Pro55+)

Hanneke A.H. Wijnhoven, Liset E.M. Elstgeest, Henrica C.W. de Vet, Mary Nicolaou, Marieke B. Snijder, Marjolein Visser

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

In old age, sufficient protein intake is important to preserve muscle mass and function. Around 50% of older adults (65+ y) consumes 1.0 g/kg adjusted body weight (BW)/day (d). There is no rapid method available to screen for low protein intake in old age. Therefore, we aimed to develop and validate a short food questionnaire to screen for low protein intake in community-dwelling older adults. We used data of 1348 older men and women (56–101 y) of the LASA study (the Netherlands) to develop the questionnaire and data of 563 older men and women (55–71 y) of the HELIUS study (the Netherlands) for external validation. In both samples, protein intake was measured by the 238-item semi-quantitative HELIUS food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to predict protein intake 1.0 g/kg adjusted BW/d (based on the HELIUS FFQ). Candidate predictor variables were FFQ questions on frequency and amount of intake of specific foods. In both samples, 30% had a protein intake 1.0 g/kg adjusted BW/d. Our final model included adjusted body weight and 10 questions on the consumption (amount on average day or frequency in 4 weeks) of: slices of bread (number); glasses of milk (number); meat with warm meal (portion size); cheese (amount and frequency); dairy products (like yoghurt) (frequency); egg(s) (frequency); pasta/noodles (frequency); fish (frequency); and nuts/peanuts (frequency). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was 0.889 (95% CI 0.870–0.907). The calibration slope was 1.03 (optimal slope 1.00). At a cut-off of 0.8 g/kg adjusted BW/d, the AUC was 0.916 (96% CI 0.897–0.936). Applying the regression equation to the HELIUS sample, the AUC was 0.856 (95% CI 0.824–0.888) and the calibration slope 0.92. Regression coefficients were therefore subsequently shrunken by a linear factor 0.92. To conclude, the short food questionnaire (Pro55+) can be used to validly screen for protein intake 1.0 g/kg adjusted BW/d in community-dwelling older adults. An online version can be found at www.proteinscreener.nl. External validation in other countries is recommended.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0196406
JournalPLoS ONE
Volume13
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2018

Cite this

Wijnhoven, Hanneke A.H. ; Elstgeest, Liset E.M. ; de Vet, Henrica C.W. ; Nicolaou, Mary ; Snijder, Marieke B. ; Visser, Marjolein. / Development and validation of a short food questionnaire to screen for low protein intake in community-dwelling older adults : The Protein Screener 55+ (Pro55+). In: PLoS ONE. 2018 ; Vol. 13, No. 5.
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title = "Development and validation of a short food questionnaire to screen for low protein intake in community-dwelling older adults: The Protein Screener 55+ (Pro55+)",
abstract = "In old age, sufficient protein intake is important to preserve muscle mass and function. Around 50{\%} of older adults (65+ y) consumes 1.0 g/kg adjusted body weight (BW)/day (d). There is no rapid method available to screen for low protein intake in old age. Therefore, we aimed to develop and validate a short food questionnaire to screen for low protein intake in community-dwelling older adults. We used data of 1348 older men and women (56–101 y) of the LASA study (the Netherlands) to develop the questionnaire and data of 563 older men and women (55–71 y) of the HELIUS study (the Netherlands) for external validation. In both samples, protein intake was measured by the 238-item semi-quantitative HELIUS food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to predict protein intake 1.0 g/kg adjusted BW/d (based on the HELIUS FFQ). Candidate predictor variables were FFQ questions on frequency and amount of intake of specific foods. In both samples, 30{\%} had a protein intake 1.0 g/kg adjusted BW/d. Our final model included adjusted body weight and 10 questions on the consumption (amount on average day or frequency in 4 weeks) of: slices of bread (number); glasses of milk (number); meat with warm meal (portion size); cheese (amount and frequency); dairy products (like yoghurt) (frequency); egg(s) (frequency); pasta/noodles (frequency); fish (frequency); and nuts/peanuts (frequency). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was 0.889 (95{\%} CI 0.870–0.907). The calibration slope was 1.03 (optimal slope 1.00). At a cut-off of 0.8 g/kg adjusted BW/d, the AUC was 0.916 (96{\%} CI 0.897–0.936). Applying the regression equation to the HELIUS sample, the AUC was 0.856 (95{\%} CI 0.824–0.888) and the calibration slope 0.92. Regression coefficients were therefore subsequently shrunken by a linear factor 0.92. To conclude, the short food questionnaire (Pro55+) can be used to validly screen for protein intake 1.0 g/kg adjusted BW/d in community-dwelling older adults. An online version can be found at www.proteinscreener.nl. External validation in other countries is recommended.",
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Development and validation of a short food questionnaire to screen for low protein intake in community-dwelling older adults : The Protein Screener 55+ (Pro55+). / Wijnhoven, Hanneke A.H.; Elstgeest, Liset E.M.; de Vet, Henrica C.W.; Nicolaou, Mary; Snijder, Marieke B.; Visser, Marjolein.

In: PLoS ONE, Vol. 13, No. 5, e0196406, 01.05.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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T1 - Development and validation of a short food questionnaire to screen for low protein intake in community-dwelling older adults

T2 - The Protein Screener 55+ (Pro55+)

AU - Wijnhoven, Hanneke A.H.

AU - Elstgeest, Liset E.M.

AU - de Vet, Henrica C.W.

AU - Nicolaou, Mary

AU - Snijder, Marieke B.

AU - Visser, Marjolein

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N2 - In old age, sufficient protein intake is important to preserve muscle mass and function. Around 50% of older adults (65+ y) consumes 1.0 g/kg adjusted body weight (BW)/day (d). There is no rapid method available to screen for low protein intake in old age. Therefore, we aimed to develop and validate a short food questionnaire to screen for low protein intake in community-dwelling older adults. We used data of 1348 older men and women (56–101 y) of the LASA study (the Netherlands) to develop the questionnaire and data of 563 older men and women (55–71 y) of the HELIUS study (the Netherlands) for external validation. In both samples, protein intake was measured by the 238-item semi-quantitative HELIUS food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to predict protein intake 1.0 g/kg adjusted BW/d (based on the HELIUS FFQ). Candidate predictor variables were FFQ questions on frequency and amount of intake of specific foods. In both samples, 30% had a protein intake 1.0 g/kg adjusted BW/d. Our final model included adjusted body weight and 10 questions on the consumption (amount on average day or frequency in 4 weeks) of: slices of bread (number); glasses of milk (number); meat with warm meal (portion size); cheese (amount and frequency); dairy products (like yoghurt) (frequency); egg(s) (frequency); pasta/noodles (frequency); fish (frequency); and nuts/peanuts (frequency). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was 0.889 (95% CI 0.870–0.907). The calibration slope was 1.03 (optimal slope 1.00). At a cut-off of 0.8 g/kg adjusted BW/d, the AUC was 0.916 (96% CI 0.897–0.936). Applying the regression equation to the HELIUS sample, the AUC was 0.856 (95% CI 0.824–0.888) and the calibration slope 0.92. Regression coefficients were therefore subsequently shrunken by a linear factor 0.92. To conclude, the short food questionnaire (Pro55+) can be used to validly screen for protein intake 1.0 g/kg adjusted BW/d in community-dwelling older adults. An online version can be found at www.proteinscreener.nl. External validation in other countries is recommended.

AB - In old age, sufficient protein intake is important to preserve muscle mass and function. Around 50% of older adults (65+ y) consumes 1.0 g/kg adjusted body weight (BW)/day (d). There is no rapid method available to screen for low protein intake in old age. Therefore, we aimed to develop and validate a short food questionnaire to screen for low protein intake in community-dwelling older adults. We used data of 1348 older men and women (56–101 y) of the LASA study (the Netherlands) to develop the questionnaire and data of 563 older men and women (55–71 y) of the HELIUS study (the Netherlands) for external validation. In both samples, protein intake was measured by the 238-item semi-quantitative HELIUS food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to predict protein intake 1.0 g/kg adjusted BW/d (based on the HELIUS FFQ). Candidate predictor variables were FFQ questions on frequency and amount of intake of specific foods. In both samples, 30% had a protein intake 1.0 g/kg adjusted BW/d. Our final model included adjusted body weight and 10 questions on the consumption (amount on average day or frequency in 4 weeks) of: slices of bread (number); glasses of milk (number); meat with warm meal (portion size); cheese (amount and frequency); dairy products (like yoghurt) (frequency); egg(s) (frequency); pasta/noodles (frequency); fish (frequency); and nuts/peanuts (frequency). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was 0.889 (95% CI 0.870–0.907). The calibration slope was 1.03 (optimal slope 1.00). At a cut-off of 0.8 g/kg adjusted BW/d, the AUC was 0.916 (96% CI 0.897–0.936). Applying the regression equation to the HELIUS sample, the AUC was 0.856 (95% CI 0.824–0.888) and the calibration slope 0.92. Regression coefficients were therefore subsequently shrunken by a linear factor 0.92. To conclude, the short food questionnaire (Pro55+) can be used to validly screen for protein intake 1.0 g/kg adjusted BW/d in community-dwelling older adults. An online version can be found at www.proteinscreener.nl. External validation in other countries is recommended.

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