Diabetes fear of injecting and self-testing questionnaire: A pschometric evaluation

Eline D. Mollema*, Frank J. Snoek, François Pouwer, Robert J. Heine, Henk M. Van Der Ploeg

*Corresponding author for this work

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OBJECTIVE - To study the psychometric properties of the Diabetes Fear of Injecting and Self-Testing Questionnaire (D-FISQ). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - Two groups of patients were studied. Sample A consisted of 252 insulin-treated diabetes patients. Sample B incorporated 24 insulin-treated patients with high scores (≥95th percentile) on the D-FISQ. Test-retest corrections were assessed in both samples. Discriminant and convergent validity of the D-FISQ were assessed with questionnaires concerning fear of hypoglycemia, trait anxiety, and fear of bodily injury, illness, or death. To evaluate criterion-related validity, sample B participated in a behavioral avoidance test (BAT), in which the current level of avoidance of either self- injecting or self-testing was determined. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was performed to study whether 2 factors (fear of self-injecting [FSI] and fear of self-testing [FST]) could be detected. RESULTS - Test-retest correlations ranged from 0.50 to 0.68 (P < 0.001). Correlations between D- FISQ and fear of hypoglycemia, trait anxiety, and fear of bodily injury, illness, or death ranged from 0.28 to 0.45 (P < 0.001). Patients who refused to do a BAT for self-injecting or self-testing had higher scores on FSI (P = 0.095) and FST (P = 0.01). EFA yielded 2 separate factors, FSI and FST. CONCLUSIONS - Results from this study support reliability and validity of the D-FISQ, a self-report instrument that can be used for both clinical and research purposes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)765-769
Number of pages5
JournalDiabetes Care
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2000

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