A survey of diagnosis and treatment of invasive aspergillosis was conducted in eight University Medical Centers (UMCs) and eight non-academic teaching hospitals in the Netherlands. Against a background of emerging azole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus routine resistance screening of clinical isolates was performed primarily in the UMCs. Azole resistance rates at the hospital level varied between 5% and 10%, although rates up to 30% were reported in high-risk wards. Voriconazole remained first choice for invasive aspergillosis in 13 out of 16 hospitals. In documented azole resistance 14 out of 16 centres treated patients with liposomal amphotericin B.