Chapter 1 is a general introduction. Chapter 2 describes currently known methylation markers in urine for diagnosis of bladder cancer and their diagnostic accuracy. In Chapter 3 several methylation markers in urine are evaluated to use for diagnosis of bladder cancer and an optimal two gene panel is proposed. In chapter 4 several additives are tested to preserve urinary DNA prior to the analysis of methylation markers in urine. A protocol for preservation is proposed. In chapter 5 the two systems used for grading bladder cancer are tested to determine their reproducibility, both are poorly reproducible. In chapter 6, several measurents are used to determine whether a more objective method to determine bladder cancer grade is possible. In chapter 7 the value of an immediate instillation of mitomycin C after transurethral resection of a bladder tumor is evaluated in a randomised controlled trial. The study shows that an immediate instillation reduces the risk of recurrent bladder cancer. In chapter 8, we evaluate whether the value of an immediate instillation is different in several subgroups of patients. We found that an immediate instillation is effective in all risk groups. In Chapter 9, the timing of an immediate instillation of mitomycin C is investigated. We found that, altough it is recommended to administer an immediate instillation as soon a possible after transurethral resection of a bladder tumour, patients may still benefit from an instillation 1 day after transurethral resection. In chapter 10, interleukin-2 instillations are tested in patients with bladder cancer with and without a marker lesion. The study was closed prematurely so no soli conclusions can be made. However no clear benefit of a marker lesion was detected. In part 3 bladder preservation using brachytherapiy in high risk non muscle invasive bladder cancer, and muscle invasive bladder cancer is evaluatied. We found that brachytherapy is a good alternative to cystectomy in selected patients, without compromising survival. Additionally, the implantaion of the brachytherapey cathethers can safely be conducted using a robot-assisted laparoscopic approach.
|Qualification||Doctor of Philosophy|
|Award date||11 Oct 2021|
|Place of Publication||Alblasserdam|
|Publication status||Published - 11 Oct 2021|