PURPOSE: To validate a smartphone-operated, single-lead electrocardiography (1L-ECG) device (AliveCor KardiaMobile) with an integrated algorithm for atrial fibrillation (AF) against 12-lead ECG (12L-ECG) in a primary care population. METHODS: We recruited consecutive patients who underwent 12L-ECG for any nonacute indication. Patients held a smartphone with connected 1L-ECG while local personnel simultaneously performed 12L-ECG. All 1L-ECG recordings were assessed by blinded cardiologists as well as by the smartphone-integrated algorithm. The study cardiologists also assessed all 12L-recordings in random order as the reference standard. We determined the diagnostic accuracy of the 1L-ECG in detecting AF or atrial flutter (AFL) as well as any rhythm abnormality and any conduction abnormality with the simultaneously performed 12L-ECG as the reference standard. RESULTS: We included 214 patients from 10 Dutch general practices. Mean ± SD age was 64.1 ± 14.7 years, and 53.7% of the patients were male. The 12L-ECG diagnosed AF/AFL, any rhythm abnormality, and any conduction abnormality in 23, 44, and 28 patients, respectively. The 1L-ECG as assessed by cardiologists had a sensitivity and specificity for AF/AFL of 100% (95% CI, 85.2%-100%) and 100% (95% CI, 98.1%-100%). The AF detection algorithm had a sensitivity and specificity of 87.0% (95% CI, 66.4%-97.2%) and 97.9% (95% CI, 94.7%-99.4%). The 1L-ECG as assessed by cardiologists had a sensitivity and specificity for any rhythm abnormality of 90.9% (95% CI, 78.3%-97.5%) and 93.5% (95% CI, 88.7%-96.7%) and for any conduction abnormality of 46.4% (95% CI, 27.5%-66.1%) and 100% (95% CI, 98.0%-100%). CONCLUSIONS: In a primary care population, a smartphone-operated, 1L-ECG device showed excellent diagnostic accuracy for AF/AFL and good diagnostic accuracy for other rhythm abnormalities. The 1L-ECG device was less sensitive for conduction abnormalities.
Himmelreich, J. C. L., Karregat, E. P. M., Lucassen, W. A. M., van Weert, H. C. P. M., de Groot, J. R., Handoko, M. L., ... Harskamp, R. E. (2019). Diagnostic Accuracy of a Smartphone-Operated, Single-Lead Electrocardiography Device for Detection of Rhythm and Conduction Abnormalities in Primary Care. Annals of Family Medicine, 17(5), 403-411. https://doi.org/10.1370/afm.2438