Purpose To determine the diagnostic capability of peripapillary 3-dimensional (3D) retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) volume measurements from spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) volume scans for open-angle glaucoma (OAG). Design Assessment of diagnostic accuracy. Methods SETTING: Academic clinical setting. STUDY POPULATION: Total of 180 patients (113 OAG and 67 normal subjects). OBSERVATION PROCEDURES: One eye per subject was included. Peripapillary 3D RNFL volumes were calculated for global, quadrant, and sector regions, using 4 different-size annuli. Peripapillary 2D RNFL thickness circle scans were also obtained. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) values, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, positive and negative likelihood ratios. Results Among all 2D and 3D RNFL parameters, best diagnostic capability was associated with inferior quadrant 3D RNFL volume of the smallest annulus (AUROC value 0.977). Otherwise, global 3D RNFL volume AUROC values were comparable to global 2D RNFL thickness AUROC values for all 4 annulus sizes (P values:.0593 to.6866). When comparing the 4 annulus sizes for global RNFL volume, the smallest annulus had the best AUROC values (P values:.0317 to.0380). The smallest-size annulus may have the best diagnostic potential, partly owing to having no areas excluded for being larger than the 6 × 6 mm2 scanned region. Conclusion Peripapillary 3D RNFL volume showed excellent diagnostic performance for detecting glaucoma. Peripapillary 3D RNFL volume parameters have the same or better diagnostic capability compared to peripapillary 2D RNFL thickness measurements, although differences were not statistically significant.