Purpose: The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between complaints of the neck and shoulder region, the jaw-shoulder violin fixation force, and the activity of the neck and shoulder muscles in violinists. Methods: In this case-control study twenty professional violinists were included, of which ten with current complaints of the neck shoulder region and ten without these complaints. A questionnaire including the DASH and NDI was used; violin fixation force and activity of the superficial neck muscles were evaluated in five playing conditions. Results: Each group consisted of eight female and two male violists with a mean age of 29 years. Violinists with complaints had more muscle activity of all evaluated muscles compared to violinists without complaints; complaints were significantly associated with the muscle activity of all evaluated muscles. Complaints were not significantly associated with the violin fixation force. The playing condition significantly predicted the violin fixation force and the activity of all muscles except the left mTP. Conclusions: Violinists with complaints have more muscle activity of some superficial neck and shoulder muscles. Co-contraction is thought to play a relevant role in violinists with these complaints.