Detecting different lipid profiles in early infarct development may give an insight on the fate of compromised tissue. Here we used Mass Spectrometry Imaging to identify lipids at 4, 8 and 24 hours after ischemic stroke in mice, induced by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO). Combining linear transparency overlay, a clustering pipeline and spatial segmentation, we identified three regions: infarct core, penumbra (i.e. comprised tissue that is not yet converted to core), and surrounding healthy tissue. Phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (m/z = 965.5) became visible in the penumbra 24 hours after tMCAO. Infarct evolution was shown by 2D-renderings of multiple phosphatidylcholine (PC) and Lyso-PC isoforms. High-resolution Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, to evaluate sodium/potassium ratios, revealed a significant increase in sodium and a decrease in potassium species in the ischemic area (core and penumbra) compared to healthy tissue at 24 hours after tMCAO. In a transgenic mouse model with an enhanced susceptibility to ischemic stroke, we found a more pronounced discrimination in sodium/potassium ratios between penumbra and healthy regions. Insight in changes in lipid profiles in the first hours of stroke may guide the development of new prognostic biomarkers and novel therapeutic targets to minimize infarct progression.