Distribution of β/A4 protein and amyloid precursor protein in hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis-Dutch type and Alzheimer's disease

A. J.M. Rozemuller*, R. A.C. Roos, G. T.A.M. Bots, W. Kamphorst, P. Eikelenboom, W. E. Van Nostrand

*Corresponding author for this work

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Brain amyloidosis with abundant β/A4 protein deposition in plaques and cortical and meningeal vessels is found in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis-Dutch type (HCHWA-D). In contrast to AD, no neuritic pathology or classical congophilic plaques are found in HCHWA-D. Unlike most AD cases, the congophilic angiopathy in HCHWA- D is very severe. It is still unknown whether β/A4 deposits in plaques and vessels have the same origin. In this study, we have used frozen cortical tissue of HCHWA-D and AD patients to investigate the β/A4 amyloid protein and the amyloid precursor protein (APP) in different types of plaques and congophilic angiopathy. Immunohistochemical staining was conducted using antibodies against synthetic β/A4 proteins and antibodies against APP including MAbP2-1, a monoclonal antibody against purified protease nexin-2, which is the secreted form of APP. In contrast to immunohistochemical studies on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue, frozen tissue of HCHWA-D patients revealed a very high number of β/A4 plaques resembling AD. All plaques were of the diffuse type. Doublestaining with MAbP2-1 and β/A4 antisera revealed 1) the presence of APP immunoreactivity in classical plaques and transitional forms; 2) the absence of APP immunoreactivity in diffuse plaques in HCHWA-D and AD; and 3) pronounced APP immunoreactivity in congophilic vessels in HCHWA-D in contrast to weak APP staining in congophilic vessels in AD. Together these findings suggest that a) the presence of APP in plaques is related to neuritic changes; b) different processes occur in amyloid formation in plaques and vessels; and c) differences exist between the process of amyloid formation in HCHWA-D and AD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1449-1457
Number of pages9
JournalAmerican Journal of Pathology
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 1993

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