In the present study, the effects of hearing aid use by hearing-impaired older individuals on different aspects of cognitive function, such as memory, attention, executive functioning, and processing speed, were investigated. Fifty-six participants (mean age = 72.5) who were fitted with hearing aids were compared with 46 control participants (mean age = 74.5) with an equivalent hearing impairment, but who were not fitted with a hearing aid. After a dual baseline measurement and fitting of the hearing aids, all participants were assessed again with neurocognitive tests after 12 months. While the participants with hearing aids had improved aided hearing thresholds, they did not demonstrate an improved performance on the cognitive tests compared to the controls. Thus improved hearing did not improve cognitive functioning. These findings may suggest that hearing aid use only restores impairments at the level of the sensory organ, but does not affect the central nervous system and, as a consequence, cognitive functioning. © 2005 British Society of Audiology, International Society of Audiology, and Nordic Audiological Society.