Disruption of the intestinal microbiota occurs frequently in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) recipients and predisposes them to development of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). In a prospective, single-center, single-arm study, we investigated the effect of donor fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) on symptoms of steroid-refractory or steroid-dependent, acute or late-onset acute intestinal GvHD in 15 individuals who had undergone allo-HCT. Study participants received a fecal suspension from an unrelated healthy donor via nasoduodenal infusion. Donor FMT was well tolerated, and infection-related adverse events did not seem to be related to the FMT procedure. In 10 of 15 study participants, a complete clinical response was observed within 1 month after FMT, without additional interventions to alleviate GvHD symptoms. This response was accompanied by an increase in gut microbial α-diversity, a partial engraftment of donor bacterial species, and increased abundance of butyrate-producing bacteria, including Clostridiales and Blautia species. In 6 of the 10 responding donor FMT recipients, immunosuppressant drug therapy was successfully tapered. Durable remission of steroid-refractory or steroid-dependent GvHD after donor FMT was associated with improved survival at 24 weeks after donor FMT. This study highlights the potential of donor FMT as a treatment for steroid-refractory or steroid-dependent GvHD, but larger clinical trials are needed to confirm the safety and efficacy of this procedure.