Donor-specific alloantibodies (DSA) have been associated with rejection and shorter graft survival after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). We examined the role of DSA in nonanastomotic biliary strictures (NAS) after OLT. Patients receiving first OLT who developed NAS (n = 68) and a control group without NAS (n = 83), with pre-OLT and 12 months post-OLT serum samples, were included. DSA were specified using the Luminex single antigen test. Risk factors for NAS and graft survival were analyzed. The presence of preformed DSA was not significantly different between patients with NAS and controls (P =.89). After 12 months, 26.5% of NAS patients and 16.9% of controls had generated de novo DSA (P =.15). Neither de novo class I DSA nor de novo class II DSA were associated with NAS. De novo DSA generally developed after the diagnosis of NAS. Time-dependent regression analysis identified both NAS (aHR 8.05, CI 3.28 – 19.77, P <.01) and de novo class II DSA (aHR 2.84, CI 1.38 – 5.82, P <.01) as independent risk factors for graft loss. Preformed or de novo DSA were not associated with the development of NAS. However, NAS as well as de novo class II DSA were independent risk factors for graft loss after OLT.