Background: Serotonin transporter blockers, like citalopram, dose-dependently bind to the serotonin transporter. Pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI) can be used to non-invasively monitor effects of serotonergic medication. Although previous studies showed that phMRI can measure the effect of a single dose of serotoninergic medication, it is currently unclear whether it can also detect dose-dependent effects. Aims: To investigate the dose-dependent phMRI response to citalopram and compared this with serotonin transporter occupancy, measured with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Methods: Forty-five healthy females were randomized to pre-treatment with placebo, a low (4 mg) or clinically standard (16 mg) oral citalopram dose. Prior to citalopram, and 3 h after, subjects underwent SPECT scanning. Subsequently, a phMRI scan with a citalopram challenge (7.5 mg intravenously) was conducted. Change in cerebral blood flow in response to the citalopram challenge was assessed in the thalamus and occipital cortex (control region). Results: Citalopram dose-dependently affected serotonin transporter occupancy, as measured with SPECT. In addition, citalopram dose-dependently affected the phMRI response to intravenous citalopram in the thalamus (but not occipital cortex), but phMRI was less sensitive in distinguishing between groups than SPECT. Serotonin transporter occupancy showed a trend-significant correlation to thalamic cerebral blood flow change. Conclusion: These results suggest that phMRI likely suffers from higher variation than SPECT, but that these techniques probably also assess different functional aspects of the serotonergic synapse; therefore phMRI could complement positron emission tomography/SPECT for measuring effects of serotonergic medication.