Double flap phalloplasty in transgender men: Surgical technique and outcome of pedicled anterolateral thigh flap phalloplasty combined with radial forearm free flap urethral reconstruction

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Abstract

Introduction: Radial forearm free flap (RFFF) tube-in-tube phalloplasty is the most performed phalloplasty technique worldwide. The conspicuous donor-site scar is a drawback for some transgender men. In search for techniques with less conspicuous donor-sites, we performed a series of one-stage pedicled anterolateral thigh flap (ALT) phalloplasties combined with RFFF urethral reconstruction. In this study, we aim to describe this technique and assess its surgical outcome in a series of transgender men. Patients and Methods: Between January 2008 and December 2015, nineteen transgender men (median age 37, range 21-57) underwent pedicled ALT phalloplasty combined with RFFF urethral reconstruction in one stage. The surgical procedure was described. Patient demographics, surgical characteristics, intra- and postoperative complications, hospitalization length, and reoperations were recorded. Results: The size of the ALT flaps ranged from 12 × 12 to 15 × 13 cm, the size of the RFFFs from 14 × 3 to 17 × 3 cm. Median clinical follow-up was 35 months (range 3-95). Total RFFF failure occurred in two patients, total ALT flap failure in one patient, and partial necrosis of the ALT flap in one patient. Long-term urinary complications occurred in 10 (53%) patients, of which 9 concerned urethral strictures. Conclusions: In experienced hands, one-stage pedicled ALT phalloplasty combined with RFFF urethral reconstruction is a feasible alternative surgical option in eligible transgender men, who desire a less conspicuous forearm scar. Possible drawbacks comprise flap-related complications, difficult inner flap monitoring and urethral complications.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)917-923
Number of pages7
JournalMicrosurgery
Volume37
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2017

Cite this

@article{17e967bc046440688dc1b1798b66e288,
title = "Double flap phalloplasty in transgender men: Surgical technique and outcome of pedicled anterolateral thigh flap phalloplasty combined with radial forearm free flap urethral reconstruction",
abstract = "Introduction: Radial forearm free flap (RFFF) tube-in-tube phalloplasty is the most performed phalloplasty technique worldwide. The conspicuous donor-site scar is a drawback for some transgender men. In search for techniques with less conspicuous donor-sites, we performed a series of one-stage pedicled anterolateral thigh flap (ALT) phalloplasties combined with RFFF urethral reconstruction. In this study, we aim to describe this technique and assess its surgical outcome in a series of transgender men. Patients and Methods: Between January 2008 and December 2015, nineteen transgender men (median age 37, range 21-57) underwent pedicled ALT phalloplasty combined with RFFF urethral reconstruction in one stage. The surgical procedure was described. Patient demographics, surgical characteristics, intra- and postoperative complications, hospitalization length, and reoperations were recorded. Results: The size of the ALT flaps ranged from 12 × 12 to 15 × 13 cm, the size of the RFFFs from 14 × 3 to 17 × 3 cm. Median clinical follow-up was 35 months (range 3-95). Total RFFF failure occurred in two patients, total ALT flap failure in one patient, and partial necrosis of the ALT flap in one patient. Long-term urinary complications occurred in 10 (53{\%}) patients, of which 9 concerned urethral strictures. Conclusions: In experienced hands, one-stage pedicled ALT phalloplasty combined with RFFF urethral reconstruction is a feasible alternative surgical option in eligible transgender men, who desire a less conspicuous forearm scar. Possible drawbacks comprise flap-related complications, difficult inner flap monitoring and urethral complications.",
author = "{van der Sluis}, {Wouter B.} and Smit, {Jan Maerten} and Pigot, {Garry L.S.} and Buncamper, {Marlon E.} and Winters, {Henri A.H.} and Mullender, {Margriet G.} and Bouman, {Mark Bram}",
year = "2017",
month = "11",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1002/micr.30190",
language = "English",
volume = "37",
pages = "917--923",
journal = "Microsurgery",
issn = "0738-1085",
publisher = "Wiley-Liss Inc.",
number = "8",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Double flap phalloplasty in transgender men

T2 - Surgical technique and outcome of pedicled anterolateral thigh flap phalloplasty combined with radial forearm free flap urethral reconstruction

AU - van der Sluis, Wouter B.

AU - Smit, Jan Maerten

AU - Pigot, Garry L.S.

AU - Buncamper, Marlon E.

AU - Winters, Henri A.H.

AU - Mullender, Margriet G.

AU - Bouman, Mark Bram

PY - 2017/11/1

Y1 - 2017/11/1

N2 - Introduction: Radial forearm free flap (RFFF) tube-in-tube phalloplasty is the most performed phalloplasty technique worldwide. The conspicuous donor-site scar is a drawback for some transgender men. In search for techniques with less conspicuous donor-sites, we performed a series of one-stage pedicled anterolateral thigh flap (ALT) phalloplasties combined with RFFF urethral reconstruction. In this study, we aim to describe this technique and assess its surgical outcome in a series of transgender men. Patients and Methods: Between January 2008 and December 2015, nineteen transgender men (median age 37, range 21-57) underwent pedicled ALT phalloplasty combined with RFFF urethral reconstruction in one stage. The surgical procedure was described. Patient demographics, surgical characteristics, intra- and postoperative complications, hospitalization length, and reoperations were recorded. Results: The size of the ALT flaps ranged from 12 × 12 to 15 × 13 cm, the size of the RFFFs from 14 × 3 to 17 × 3 cm. Median clinical follow-up was 35 months (range 3-95). Total RFFF failure occurred in two patients, total ALT flap failure in one patient, and partial necrosis of the ALT flap in one patient. Long-term urinary complications occurred in 10 (53%) patients, of which 9 concerned urethral strictures. Conclusions: In experienced hands, one-stage pedicled ALT phalloplasty combined with RFFF urethral reconstruction is a feasible alternative surgical option in eligible transgender men, who desire a less conspicuous forearm scar. Possible drawbacks comprise flap-related complications, difficult inner flap monitoring and urethral complications.

AB - Introduction: Radial forearm free flap (RFFF) tube-in-tube phalloplasty is the most performed phalloplasty technique worldwide. The conspicuous donor-site scar is a drawback for some transgender men. In search for techniques with less conspicuous donor-sites, we performed a series of one-stage pedicled anterolateral thigh flap (ALT) phalloplasties combined with RFFF urethral reconstruction. In this study, we aim to describe this technique and assess its surgical outcome in a series of transgender men. Patients and Methods: Between January 2008 and December 2015, nineteen transgender men (median age 37, range 21-57) underwent pedicled ALT phalloplasty combined with RFFF urethral reconstruction in one stage. The surgical procedure was described. Patient demographics, surgical characteristics, intra- and postoperative complications, hospitalization length, and reoperations were recorded. Results: The size of the ALT flaps ranged from 12 × 12 to 15 × 13 cm, the size of the RFFFs from 14 × 3 to 17 × 3 cm. Median clinical follow-up was 35 months (range 3-95). Total RFFF failure occurred in two patients, total ALT flap failure in one patient, and partial necrosis of the ALT flap in one patient. Long-term urinary complications occurred in 10 (53%) patients, of which 9 concerned urethral strictures. Conclusions: In experienced hands, one-stage pedicled ALT phalloplasty combined with RFFF urethral reconstruction is a feasible alternative surgical option in eligible transgender men, who desire a less conspicuous forearm scar. Possible drawbacks comprise flap-related complications, difficult inner flap monitoring and urethral complications.

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U2 - 10.1002/micr.30190

DO - 10.1002/micr.30190

M3 - Article

VL - 37

SP - 917

EP - 923

JO - Microsurgery

JF - Microsurgery

SN - 0738-1085

IS - 8

ER -