Eating styles in major depressive disorder: Results from a large-scale study

Nadine P.G. Paans, Mariska Bot, Tatjana van Strien, Ingeborg A. Brouwer, Marjolein Visser, Brenda W.J.H. Penninx

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Depressed persons have been found to present disturbances in eating styles, but it is unclear whether eating styles are different in subgroups of depressed patients. We studied the association between depressive disorder, severity, course and specific depressive symptom profiles and unhealthy eating styles. Cross-sectional and course data from 1060 remitted depressed patients, 309 currently depressed patients and 381 healthy controls from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety were used. Depressive disorders (DSM-IV based psychiatric interview) and self-reported depressive symptoms (Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology) were related to emotional, external and restrained eating (Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire) using analyses of covariance and linear regression. Remitted and current depressive disorders were significantly associated with higher emotional eating (Cohen's d = 0.40 and 0.60 respectively, p < 0.001) and higher external eating (Cohen's d = 0.20, p = 0.001 and Cohen's d = 0.32, p < 0.001 respectively). Little differences in eating styles between depression course groups were observed. Associations followed a dose-response association, with more emotional and external eating when depression was more severe (both p-values <0.001). Longer symptom duration was also associated to more emotional and external eating (p < 0.001 and p = 0.001 respectively). When examining individual depressive symptoms, neuro-vegetative depressive symptoms contributed relatively more to emotional and external eating, while mood and anxious symptoms contributed relatively less to emotional and external eating. No depression associations were found with restrained eating. Intervention programs for depression should examine whether treating disordered eating specifically in those with neuro-vegetative, atypical depressive symptoms may help prevent or minimize adverse health consequences.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)38-46
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Psychiatric Research
Volume97
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2018

Cite this

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title = "Eating styles in major depressive disorder: Results from a large-scale study",
abstract = "Depressed persons have been found to present disturbances in eating styles, but it is unclear whether eating styles are different in subgroups of depressed patients. We studied the association between depressive disorder, severity, course and specific depressive symptom profiles and unhealthy eating styles. Cross-sectional and course data from 1060 remitted depressed patients, 309 currently depressed patients and 381 healthy controls from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety were used. Depressive disorders (DSM-IV based psychiatric interview) and self-reported depressive symptoms (Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology) were related to emotional, external and restrained eating (Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire) using analyses of covariance and linear regression. Remitted and current depressive disorders were significantly associated with higher emotional eating (Cohen's d = 0.40 and 0.60 respectively, p < 0.001) and higher external eating (Cohen's d = 0.20, p = 0.001 and Cohen's d = 0.32, p < 0.001 respectively). Little differences in eating styles between depression course groups were observed. Associations followed a dose-response association, with more emotional and external eating when depression was more severe (both p-values <0.001). Longer symptom duration was also associated to more emotional and external eating (p < 0.001 and p = 0.001 respectively). When examining individual depressive symptoms, neuro-vegetative depressive symptoms contributed relatively more to emotional and external eating, while mood and anxious symptoms contributed relatively less to emotional and external eating. No depression associations were found with restrained eating. Intervention programs for depression should examine whether treating disordered eating specifically in those with neuro-vegetative, atypical depressive symptoms may help prevent or minimize adverse health consequences.",
keywords = "Depressive disorder, Depressive symptoms, Emotional eating, External eating",
author = "Paans, {Nadine P.G.} and Mariska Bot and {van Strien}, Tatjana and Brouwer, {Ingeborg A.} and Marjolein Visser and Penninx, {Brenda W.J.H.}",
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Eating styles in major depressive disorder : Results from a large-scale study. / Paans, Nadine P.G.; Bot, Mariska; van Strien, Tatjana; Brouwer, Ingeborg A.; Visser, Marjolein; Penninx, Brenda W.J.H.

In: Journal of Psychiatric Research, Vol. 97, 01.02.2018, p. 38-46.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Eating styles in major depressive disorder

T2 - Results from a large-scale study

AU - Paans, Nadine P.G.

AU - Bot, Mariska

AU - van Strien, Tatjana

AU - Brouwer, Ingeborg A.

AU - Visser, Marjolein

AU - Penninx, Brenda W.J.H.

PY - 2018/2/1

Y1 - 2018/2/1

N2 - Depressed persons have been found to present disturbances in eating styles, but it is unclear whether eating styles are different in subgroups of depressed patients. We studied the association between depressive disorder, severity, course and specific depressive symptom profiles and unhealthy eating styles. Cross-sectional and course data from 1060 remitted depressed patients, 309 currently depressed patients and 381 healthy controls from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety were used. Depressive disorders (DSM-IV based psychiatric interview) and self-reported depressive symptoms (Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology) were related to emotional, external and restrained eating (Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire) using analyses of covariance and linear regression. Remitted and current depressive disorders were significantly associated with higher emotional eating (Cohen's d = 0.40 and 0.60 respectively, p < 0.001) and higher external eating (Cohen's d = 0.20, p = 0.001 and Cohen's d = 0.32, p < 0.001 respectively). Little differences in eating styles between depression course groups were observed. Associations followed a dose-response association, with more emotional and external eating when depression was more severe (both p-values <0.001). Longer symptom duration was also associated to more emotional and external eating (p < 0.001 and p = 0.001 respectively). When examining individual depressive symptoms, neuro-vegetative depressive symptoms contributed relatively more to emotional and external eating, while mood and anxious symptoms contributed relatively less to emotional and external eating. No depression associations were found with restrained eating. Intervention programs for depression should examine whether treating disordered eating specifically in those with neuro-vegetative, atypical depressive symptoms may help prevent or minimize adverse health consequences.

AB - Depressed persons have been found to present disturbances in eating styles, but it is unclear whether eating styles are different in subgroups of depressed patients. We studied the association between depressive disorder, severity, course and specific depressive symptom profiles and unhealthy eating styles. Cross-sectional and course data from 1060 remitted depressed patients, 309 currently depressed patients and 381 healthy controls from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety were used. Depressive disorders (DSM-IV based psychiatric interview) and self-reported depressive symptoms (Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology) were related to emotional, external and restrained eating (Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire) using analyses of covariance and linear regression. Remitted and current depressive disorders were significantly associated with higher emotional eating (Cohen's d = 0.40 and 0.60 respectively, p < 0.001) and higher external eating (Cohen's d = 0.20, p = 0.001 and Cohen's d = 0.32, p < 0.001 respectively). Little differences in eating styles between depression course groups were observed. Associations followed a dose-response association, with more emotional and external eating when depression was more severe (both p-values <0.001). Longer symptom duration was also associated to more emotional and external eating (p < 0.001 and p = 0.001 respectively). When examining individual depressive symptoms, neuro-vegetative depressive symptoms contributed relatively more to emotional and external eating, while mood and anxious symptoms contributed relatively less to emotional and external eating. No depression associations were found with restrained eating. Intervention programs for depression should examine whether treating disordered eating specifically in those with neuro-vegetative, atypical depressive symptoms may help prevent or minimize adverse health consequences.

KW - Depressive disorder

KW - Depressive symptoms

KW - Emotional eating

KW - External eating

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U2 - 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2017.11.003

DO - 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2017.11.003

M3 - Article

VL - 97

SP - 38

EP - 46

JO - Journal of Psychiatric Research

JF - Journal of Psychiatric Research

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