Background and Purpose - This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a nurse-led multidomain cardiovascular intervention on white matter hyperintensity (WMH) progression and incident lacunar infarcts in community-dwelling elderly with hypertension. Methods - The preDIVA trial (Prevention of Dementia by Intensive Vascular Care) was an open-label, cluster-randomized controlled trial in community-dwelling individuals aged 70 to 78 years. General practices were assigned by computer-generated randomization to 6-year nurse-led, multidomain intensive vascular care or standard care. Of 3526 preDIVA participants, 195 nondemented participants with a systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg were consecutively recruited to undergo magnetic resonance imaging at 2 to 3 and 5 to 6 years after baseline. WMH volumes were measured automatically, lacunar infarcts assessed visually, blinded to treatment allocation. Results - One hundred and twenty-six participants were available for longitudinal analysis (64 intervention and 62 control). Annual WMH volume increase in milliliter was similar for intervention (mean=0.73, SD=0.84) and control (mean=0.70, SD=0.59) participants (adjusted mean difference, -0.08 mL; 95% confidence interval, -0.30 to 0.15; P=0.50). Analyses suggested greater intervention effects with increasing baseline WMH volumes (P for interaction=0.03). New lacunar infarcts developed in 6 (9%) intervention and 2 (3%) control participants (odds ratio, 2.2; 95% confidence interval, 0.4-12.1; P=0.36). Conclusions - Nurse-led vascular care in hypertensive community-dwelling older persons did not diminish WMH accumulation over 3 years. However, our results do suggest this type of intervention could be effective in persons with high WMH volumes. There was no effect on lacunar infarcts incidence but numbers were low.