We studied whether common polymorphisms in genes involved in folate metabolism affect methotrexate (MTX) sensitivity. Ex vivo MTX sensitivity of lymphoblasts obtained from pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL; n = 157) was determined by the in situ thymidylate synthase inhibition assay after either continuous (21 hours; TSI(50, cont)) or short-term (3 hours; TSI(50, short)) MTX exposure. DNA was isolated from lymphoblasts obtained from cytospin slides. Polymorphisms in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR 677C>T, MTHFR 1298A>C), methionine synthase (MTR 2756A>G), methionine synthase reductase (MTRR 66A>G), methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (MTHFD1 1958G>A), serine hydroxymethyl transferase (SHMT1 1420C>T), thymidylate synthase (TS 2R3R), and the reduced folate carrier (RFC 80G>A) were detected by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) or real-time PCR. Patients with the MTHFR 1298AC variant or the MTRR 66 G-allele showed decreased in vitro MTX sensitivity measured under both test conditions. SHMT1 1420TT homozygotes only showed decreased MTX sensitivity in the TSI(50, cont). In conclusion, polymorphisms in the folate-related genes MTHFR, MTRR, and SHMT1 are related to MTX resistance in pediatric patients with ALL.