Effects of dialyser and dialysate on the acute phase reaction in clinical bicarbonate dialysis

W E Schouten, M P Grooteman, A J van Houte, M Schoorl, J van Limbeek, M J Nubé

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


BACKGROUND: In chronic haemodialysis (HD), morbidity may result from repetitive induction of the acute phase response, caused by a bioincompatible dialysis membrane and/or contaminated dialysate. In the present study, cytokine release (interleukin-6, IL-6) and subsequent production of acute phase proteins (C-reactive protein, CRP and secretory phospholipase A(2), sPLA(2)) were assessed to investigate whether the HD-induced acute phase reaction depends mainly on the type of membrane or on the sterility of the dialysate.

METHODS: In 11 patients, IL-6, CRP and sPLA(2) levels were assessed in blood samples drawn before (t(0)), at the end (t(180)) and 24 h after the start of HD (t(1440)). All patients were dialysed on Cuprammonium (CU) and Polysulphon (PS) dialysers and seven patients underwent an additional HD session on CU plus a dialysate filter (CUf).

RESULTS: IL-6 levels were increased significantly at t(180) compared with t(0) (P<0.02) with both CU and CUf. At t(1440), IL-6 levels had returned to baseline. In contrast, marked fluctuations did not occur during HD with PS. At t(180), IL-6 was significantly greater with CU and CUf devices, than with PS (P<0.02). Following HD with CU and CUf, a significant increase in CRP was observed at t(1440), compared with postdialysis values (P</=0.05). In addition, sPLA(2) values were markedly increased at t(1440), compared with t(180), but only significant in the case of CU (P=0.01). IL-6 levels at t(180) were significantly correlated with CRP (r=0.50, P<0.01) and sPLA(2) (r=0.47, P=0.01) values at t(1440). During HD with PS membranes, neither CRP nor sPLA(2) values were markedly changed.

CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to PS, both CU and CUf resulted in elevated IL-6 plasma levels at the end of HD, compared with t(0), which correlated with increased CRP and sPLA(2) values 24 h later. Therefore, the type of membrane, rather than the bacterial quality of the dialysate, seems to be responsible for the induction of the acute phase response during clinical bicarbonate HD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)379-84
Number of pages6
JournalNephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2000

Cite this