Purpose: Vitamin D status may be associated with insulin resistance and other key features of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), but data from preliminary randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are conflicting. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effects of vitamin D supplementation on plasma glucose area under the curve (AUCgluc, primary outcome measure) and on other metabolic and endocrine parameters (secondary outcome measures). Methods: This study was a single-center, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial conducted between December 2011 and July 2017 at the Medical University of Graz, Austria. One-hundred and eighty women with PCOS and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations < 75 nmol/L were randomized in a 2:1 ratio to either receive 20,000 IU of cholecalciferol weekly or placebo over 24 weeks. Primary outcome was the between-group difference in AUCgluc at study end while adjusting for baseline values. Results: In total, 123 participants completed the study [age 25.9 ± 4.7 years; BMI 27.5 ± 7.3 kg/m2; baseline 25(OH)D 48.8 ± 16.9 nmol/L, baseline fasting glucose 84 ± 8 mg/dL]. Vitamin D supplementation lead to a significant increase in 25(OH)D [mean treatment effect 33.4 nmol/L; 95% confidence interval (CI) 24.5 to 42.2; p < 0.001] but had no significant effect on AUCgluc (mean treatment effect − 9.19; 95% CI − 21.40 to 3.02; p = 0.139). Regarding secondary outcome measures, we observed a significant decrease in plasma glucose at 60 min during oral glucose tolerance test (mean treatment effect − 10.2 mg/dL; 95% CI − 20.2 to − 0.3; p = 0.045). Conclusions: Vitamin D supplementation had no significant effect on metabolic and endocrine parameters in PCOS with the exception of a reduced plasma glucose during OGTT.