Nanoscale-diameter liquid droplets from commercially available microbubbles may optimize thrombus permeation and subsequent thrombus dissolution (TD). Thrombi were made using fresh porcine arterial whole blood and placed in an in vitro vascular simulation. A diagnostic ultrasound probe in contact with a tissue-mimicking phantom tested intermittent high-mechanical-index (HMI) fundamental multipulse (focused ultrasound [FUS], 1.8 MHz) versus harmonic single-pulse (HUS, 1.3 MHz) modes during a 10-min infusion of Definity nanodroplets (DNDs), Definity microbubbles (DMBs) or saline. The ability of FUS and intravenous DNDs to improve epicardial and microvascular flow was then tested in four pigs with left anterior descending thrombotic occlusion. Sixty in vitro thrombi were tested, 20 in each group. Percentage TD was significantly higher for DND-treated thrombi than DMB-treated thrombi and controls (DNDs: 42.4%, DMBs: 26.7%, saline: 15.0%; p < 0.0001 vs. control). The highest %TD was seen in the HMI FUS-treated DND group (51 ± 17% TD). HMI FUS detected droplet activation within the risk area in three of four pigs with left anterior descending thrombotic occlusion and re-canalized the epicardial vessel in two. DNDs with intermittent diagnostic HMI ultrasound resulted in significantly more intravascular TD than DMBs and have potential for coronary and risk area thrombolysis.
|Number of pages||12|
|Journal||Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology|
|Early online date||2021|
|Publication status||Published - Jul 2021|