The objective of the present study was to determine in a controlled study the efficacy of strategy training in left hemisphere stroke patients with apraxia. A total of 113 left hemisphere stroke patients with apraxia were randomly assigned to two treatment groups; (1) strategy training integrated into usual occupational therapy and (2) usual occupational therapy only. Assessments took place at baseline, after an 8 week treatment period and 5 months after baseline (follow-up). Patients were assessed on apraxia, motor functioning and activities of daily living (ADL). The primary outcome measure was a standardised ADL observation by a blinded research assistant. Additional ADL measures were used as secondary outcome measures (Barthel ADL index, ADL judgement by occupational therapist and by patient). After 8 weeks of treatment, patients who received strategy training (n = 43) improved significantly more than patients in the usual treatment group (n = 39) on the ADL observations (mean change .24; 90% CI, .15-.34 vs. .12, .03-.21). This reflects a small to medium effect (effect size .37) of strategy training on ADL functioning. With respect to the secondary outcome measures a medium effect (effect size .47) was found on the Barthel ADL index. No beneficial effects of strategy training were found after 5 months (at follow-up). In this trial evidence was found for the short-term effectiveness of strategy training in left hemisphere stroke patients with apraxia.