Endogenous markers for kidney function in children: a review

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Although glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in children can be measured using a gold-standard technique following injection of an exogenous marker, this invasive and cumbersome technique is not widely available and GFR is commonly estimated using serum levels of endogenous markers. Creatinine, urea, cystatin C, beta-trace protein, and beta-2 microglobulin are well-established endogenous markers of kidney function. These markers differ in site of production and effects of diet and medication, as well as renal-tubular handling and extra-renal elimination. For each marker, different methods are available for measurement. Importantly, the measurements of creatinine and cystatin C have recently been standardized with the introduction of international reference standards. In order to allow estimation of GFR from serum marker concentrations, different equations for estimated GFR (eGFR) have been developed in children, using simple or more complex regression strategies with gold standard GFR measurements as a dependent variable. As a rule, estimation strategies relying on more than one marker–either by calculating the average of single parameter equations or by using more complex equations incorporating several parameters–outperform eGFR estimations using only a single marker. This in-depth review will discuss the physiology, measurement and clinical use of creatinine, urea, cystatin C, beta-trace protein, and beta-2 microglobulin in children. It will also address the generation of eGFR equations in children and provide an overview of currently available eGFR equations for the pediatric age group.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)163-183
JournalCritical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
Volume55
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018

Cite this

@article{e04d29e9244f462387bf6ba3f246f392,
title = "Endogenous markers for kidney function in children: a review",
abstract = "Although glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in children can be measured using a gold-standard technique following injection of an exogenous marker, this invasive and cumbersome technique is not widely available and GFR is commonly estimated using serum levels of endogenous markers. Creatinine, urea, cystatin C, beta-trace protein, and beta-2 microglobulin are well-established endogenous markers of kidney function. These markers differ in site of production and effects of diet and medication, as well as renal-tubular handling and extra-renal elimination. For each marker, different methods are available for measurement. Importantly, the measurements of creatinine and cystatin C have recently been standardized with the introduction of international reference standards. In order to allow estimation of GFR from serum marker concentrations, different equations for estimated GFR (eGFR) have been developed in children, using simple or more complex regression strategies with gold standard GFR measurements as a dependent variable. As a rule, estimation strategies relying on more than one marker–either by calculating the average of single parameter equations or by using more complex equations incorporating several parameters–outperform eGFR estimations using only a single marker. This in-depth review will discuss the physiology, measurement and clinical use of creatinine, urea, cystatin C, beta-trace protein, and beta-2 microglobulin in children. It will also address the generation of eGFR equations in children and provide an overview of currently available eGFR equations for the pediatric age group.",
author = "{den Bakker}, Emil and Gemke, {Reinoud J. B. J.} and Arend B{\"o}kenkamp",
year = "2018",
doi = "10.1080/10408363.2018.1427041",
language = "English",
volume = "55",
pages = "163--183",
journal = "Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences",
issn = "1040-8363",
publisher = "Informa Healthcare",
number = "3",

}

Endogenous markers for kidney function in children: a review. / den Bakker, Emil; Gemke, Reinoud J. B. J.; Bökenkamp, Arend.

In: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences, Vol. 55, No. 3, 2018, p. 163-183.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Endogenous markers for kidney function in children: a review

AU - den Bakker, Emil

AU - Gemke, Reinoud J. B. J.

AU - Bökenkamp, Arend

PY - 2018

Y1 - 2018

N2 - Although glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in children can be measured using a gold-standard technique following injection of an exogenous marker, this invasive and cumbersome technique is not widely available and GFR is commonly estimated using serum levels of endogenous markers. Creatinine, urea, cystatin C, beta-trace protein, and beta-2 microglobulin are well-established endogenous markers of kidney function. These markers differ in site of production and effects of diet and medication, as well as renal-tubular handling and extra-renal elimination. For each marker, different methods are available for measurement. Importantly, the measurements of creatinine and cystatin C have recently been standardized with the introduction of international reference standards. In order to allow estimation of GFR from serum marker concentrations, different equations for estimated GFR (eGFR) have been developed in children, using simple or more complex regression strategies with gold standard GFR measurements as a dependent variable. As a rule, estimation strategies relying on more than one marker–either by calculating the average of single parameter equations or by using more complex equations incorporating several parameters–outperform eGFR estimations using only a single marker. This in-depth review will discuss the physiology, measurement and clinical use of creatinine, urea, cystatin C, beta-trace protein, and beta-2 microglobulin in children. It will also address the generation of eGFR equations in children and provide an overview of currently available eGFR equations for the pediatric age group.

AB - Although glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in children can be measured using a gold-standard technique following injection of an exogenous marker, this invasive and cumbersome technique is not widely available and GFR is commonly estimated using serum levels of endogenous markers. Creatinine, urea, cystatin C, beta-trace protein, and beta-2 microglobulin are well-established endogenous markers of kidney function. These markers differ in site of production and effects of diet and medication, as well as renal-tubular handling and extra-renal elimination. For each marker, different methods are available for measurement. Importantly, the measurements of creatinine and cystatin C have recently been standardized with the introduction of international reference standards. In order to allow estimation of GFR from serum marker concentrations, different equations for estimated GFR (eGFR) have been developed in children, using simple or more complex regression strategies with gold standard GFR measurements as a dependent variable. As a rule, estimation strategies relying on more than one marker–either by calculating the average of single parameter equations or by using more complex equations incorporating several parameters–outperform eGFR estimations using only a single marker. This in-depth review will discuss the physiology, measurement and clinical use of creatinine, urea, cystatin C, beta-trace protein, and beta-2 microglobulin in children. It will also address the generation of eGFR equations in children and provide an overview of currently available eGFR equations for the pediatric age group.

UR - https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=85044672544&origin=inward

UR - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29388463

U2 - 10.1080/10408363.2018.1427041

DO - 10.1080/10408363.2018.1427041

M3 - Review article

VL - 55

SP - 163

EP - 183

JO - Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences

JF - Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences

SN - 1040-8363

IS - 3

ER -