BACKGROUND: In the last few decades, endoscopic treatment of early neoplastic lesions in the esophagus has established itself as a valid and less invasive alternative to surgical resection. Endoscopic resection (ER) is the cornerstone of endoscopic therapy. Next to the curative potential of ER, by removing neoplastic lesions, ER may also serve as a diagnostic tool. The relatively large tissue specimens obtained with ER enable accurate histological staging of a lesion, allowing for optimal decision-making for further patient management. ER was pioneered in Japan, mainly for the resection of gastric lesions and squamous esophageal neoplasia, and also Western countries have been increasingly implementing ER in the treatment of early gastroesophageal neoplasia, mostly associated with Barrett's esophagus (BE). In BE, however, there is still a risk of metachronous lesions in the remainder of the Barrett's after focal ER. Additional treatment of all Barrett's mucosa is therefore advised. Currently, the most effective method for this is by using radiofrequency ablation (RFA). This review will provide an overview of indications for ER and RFA. Key Messages and Conclusions: Endoscopic management of early esophageal neoplasia is a safe and valid alternative to surgery and is nowadays the treatment of choice. ER is the mainstay of endoscopic management of early esophageal neoplasia since it allows for removal of neoplastic lesions and provides a large tissue specimen for histological evaluation. In case of early neoplasia in BE, focal ER should be complemented by eradication of the remaining Barrett's mucosa. RFA has proven to be a safe and effective modality to achieve complete eradication of Barrett's mucosa.