Barrett's oesophagus is a precursor lesion for oesophageal adenocarcinoma, which generally has a poor prognosis. Patients diagnosed with Barrett's oesophagus therefore undergo regular endoscopic surveillance to detect neoplastic lesions at a curable stage. The efficacy of endoscopic surveillance of Barrett's oesophagus patients is, however, hampered by difficulties to detect early neoplasia endoscopically, biopsy sampling error, inter-observer variability in histological assessment and the relatively low overall progression rate. Efficacy and cost-effectiveness of Barrett's surveillance may be improved by using endoscopic and clinical characteristics to risk-stratify Barrett's patients to high- and low-risk categories. Recent national and international surveillance guidelines have incorporated Barrett's length and presence of low-grade dysplasia in the advised surveillance intervals. In this review we will discuss endoscopic characteristics that may be associated with neoplastic progression in Barrett's oesophagus and that may be used to tailor surveillance in Barrett's patients.