OBJECTIVE After endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV), some patients develop recurrent symptoms of hydrocephalus. The optimal treatment for these patients is not clear: repeat ETV (re-ETV) or CSF shunting. The goals of the study were to assess the effectiveness of re-ETV relative to initial ETV in pediatric patients and validate the ETV success score (ETVSS) for re-ETV. METHODS Retrospective data of 624 ETV and 93 re-ETV procedures were collected from 6 neurosurgical centers in the Netherlands (1998-2015). Multivariable Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to provide an adjusted estimate of the hazard ratio for re-ETV failure relative to ETV failure. The correlation coeffcient between ETVSS and the chance of re-ETV success was calculated using Kendall's tau coeffcient. Model discrimination was quantifed using the c-statistic. The effects of intraoperative fndings and management on re-ETV success were also analyzed. RESULTS The hazard ratio for re-ETV failure relative to ETV failure was 1.23 (95% CI 0.90-1.69; p = 0.20). At 6 months, the success rates for both ETV and re-ETV were 68%. ETVSS was signifcantly related to the chances of reETV success (t = 0.37; 95% bias corrected and accelerated CI 0.21-0.52; p < 0.001). The c-statistic was 0.74 (95% CI 0.64-0.85). The presence of prepontine arachnoid membranes and use of an external ventricular drain (EVD) were negatively associated with treatment success, with ORs of 4.0 (95% CI 1.5-10.5) and 9.7 (95% CI 3.4-27.8), respectively. CONCLUSIONS Re-ETV seems to be as safe and effective as initial ETV. ETVSS adequately predicts the chance of successful re-ETV. The presence of prepontine arachnoid membranes and the use of EVD negatively in?uence the chance of success.