Enterovirus (EV) and Parechovirus (HPeV) are a frequent cause of infection in children. This review gives an overview of possible causes for differences in clinical presentation. EV and HPeV can cause a meningitis with or without pleocytosis. Different possible mechanisms for meningitis without pleocytosis are given. Little is known about the prognosis and long-term effects of EV and HPeV meningitis in children. Only some studies with a small number of children with EV or HPeV meningitis are reported. The different possible mechanisms involved in the neurological outcome after EV or HPeV meningitis will be discussed.