Epilepsy is a frequent and disabling neurological disease with a significant burden for patients and their relatives worldwide. Epileptogenesis is understood as the plastic process that after an insult (in acquired epilepsies) finally leads to seizures with a latent period. In some cases, epileptogenesis has been clarified down to the molecular level. In parallel, the discovery of genetic defects has decisively contributed to unravel epileptic disease mechanisms. Both research directions have enabled first personalized treatment options. In addition, genetic variants associated with epilepsy can not only directly cause seizures but likely also induce an epileptogenic process (similar as in acquired epilepsies) and interact with developmental processes of the brain, finally leading to the typical age-dependent manifestation of genetic epilepsy syndromes. This article describes these correlations and the consequences for personalized treatment possibilities.