Epstein-Barr virus BARF1-induced NFκB/miR-146a/SMAD4 alterations in stomach cancer cells

Dong Ha Kim, Mee Soo Chang, Chan Jin Yoon, Jaap M Middeldorp, Olivia M Martinez, Sun-Ju Byeon, Sun Young Rha, Sung Han Kim, Yang Soo Kim, Jun Hee Woo

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Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded BamHI-A rightward frame 1 (BARF1) is a putative viral oncogene in EBV-infected stomach cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate BARF1-induced cellular protein and microRNA alterations. In this study, BARF1-expressing stomach cancer cells showed a high rate of proliferation, high levels of NFκB, and miR-146a upregulation, which was reversed by NFκB knockdown. During BARF1-induced NFκB upregulation, hCSF1 receptor level was unchanged. Knockdown of BARF1 in the naturally EBV-infected YCCEL1 stomach cancer cells suppressed cell proliferation, and downregulated NFκB and miR-146a. SMAD4 was identified as a miR-146a target and was downregulated in BARF1-expressing cells, whereas SMAD4 expression was restored by anti-miR-146a. Knockdown of BARF1 in YCCEL1 cells upregulated SMAD4, and this effect was reversed by miR-146a overexpression. Transfection of BARF1-expressing cells with pCEP4-SMAD4 abolished the cell proliferating effect of BARF1. In stomach cancer tissues, miR-146a was expressed at higher levels, and more frequent NFκB nuclear positivity immunohistochemically, but not of SMAD4 nuclear loss was found in the EBV-positive group compared with the EBV-negative group. In conclusion, EBV-encoded BARF1 promotes cell proliferation in stomach cancer by upregulating NFκB and miR-146a and downregulating SMAD4, thereby contributing to EBV-induced stomach cancer progression.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)82213-82227
Number of pages15
Issue number50
Publication statusPublished - 13 Dec 2016

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