For high-dimensional linear regression models, we review and compare several estimators of variances τ2 and σ2 of the random slopes and errors, respectively. These variances relate directly to ridge regression penalty λ and heritability index h2, often used in genetics. Several estimators of these, either based on cross-validation (CV) or maximum marginal likelihood (MML), are also discussed. The comparisons include several cases of the high-dimensional covariate matrix such as multi-collinear covariates and data-derived ones. Moreover, we study robustness against model misspecifications such as sparse instead of dense effects and non-Gaussian errors. An example on weight gain data with genomic covariates confirms the good performance of MML compared to CV. Several extensions are presented. First, to the high-dimensional linear mixed effects model, with REML as an alternative to MML. Second, to the conjugate Bayesian setting, shown to be a good alternative. Third, and most prominently, to generalized linear models for which we derive a computationally efficient MML estimator by re-writing the marginal likelihood as an n-dimensional integral. For Poisson and Binomial ridge regression, we demonstrate the superior accuracy of the resulting MML estimator of λ as compared to CV. Software is provided to enable reproduction of all results.
|Journal||Communications in Statistics: Simulation and Computation|
|Publication status||Published - 1 Jan 2019|