The conventional non-invasive tests to diagnose renal artery stenosis in a general hypertensive population are not accurate enough for screening purposes. Magnetic resonance angiography might become the new gold standard, with the advantages of the absence of contrast toxicity, good accuracy, and information on flow characteristics. With regard to the treatment of hypertension in patients with renal artery stenosis, intervention is advised only when blood pressure cannot be controlled by at least three antihypertensive drugs. Patency after stenting is superior to angioplasty, although its clinical benefit has not been proved. As for renal function, evidence - although from uncontrolled studies - for the preservation of renal function by intervention is accumulating, especially in those patients with bilateral stenosis or stenosis in a single functioning kidney.