Abstract

Background Blood cultures remain the gold standard for detecting bacteremia despite their limitations. The current practice of blood culture collection is still inefficient with low yields. Limited focus has been given to the association between timing of specimen collection at different time points during admission and their yield. Methods We carried out a retrospective observational study by analyzing all 3,890 sets of cultures collected from the 1,962 admitted patients over the seven-month period of this study. We compared the blood culture yield between the early group (24 hours after admission) and the late group (> 24 hours of admission). We also investigated the effect of prehospital oral antibiotics and pre-analytical time on the first cultures in the emergency department. Epidemiology and efficiency of blood cultures were studied for each medical specialty. Results In total, 3,349(86.1%) blood cultures were negative and 541(13.9%) were positive for one or more microorganisms. After correcting for contamination, the overall yield was 290 (7.5%). The early group (n = 1,490) yielded significantly more true-positive cultures (10.1% versus 5.8%, P<0.001) than the late group (n = 2,400). The emergency department had a significantly higher yield than general wards, 11.2% versus 5.7% (p<0.001). Prehospital oral antibiotic use and pre-analytical time did not affect the yield of first cultures at the emergency department (p = 0.735 and 0.816 respectively). The number of tests needed to obtain one true-positive culture varied between departments, ranging from 7 to 45. Conclusion This study showed that blood cultures are inefficient in detecting bacteremia. Cultures collected during 24 hours after admission yielded more positive results than those collected later. Significant variations in blood culture epidemiology and efficiency per specialty suggest that guidelines should be reevaluated. Future studies should aim at improving blood culture yield, implementing educational programs to reduce contamination and cost-effective application of modern molecular diagnostic technologies.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0214052
JournalPLoS ONE
Volume14
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019

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