Primary microcephaly has been mapped to five loci on different chromosomes. We present here the fine mapping of one of the loci, MCPH5, to a region of only 0.58 Mb located at the Iq31.3-Iq32.1 junction. A genome scan was performed on five families from the Netherlands and Jordania, with 14 patients affected by microcephaly. A maximum LOD score of 4.78 was found for marker D1S1660 at the MCPH5 locus. Haplotype analysis suggests that the gene causing microcephaly is located between markers D1S3469 and D1S1660, which exludes the previously reported ASPM gene.