Background: Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) is a chorioretinal disease characterized by fluid accumulation between the neuroretina and retinal pigment epithelium with unknown etiology. Family studies have suggested a heritable component for CSC with an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern. Therefore, exome sequencing was performed on familial cCSC to indentify the genetic components contributing to familial cCSC. Methods: Exome sequencing was performed on 72 individuals of 18 families with CSC. In these families, we determined whether rare genetic variants (minor allele frequency < 1%) were segregated with CSC and also performed familial gene-burden analysis. Results: In total, 11 variants segregated in two out of 18 families. One of these variants, c.4145C>T; p.T1382I (rs61758735) in the PTPRB gene, was also associated with CSC in a large case–control cohort sequenced previously (p = 0.009). Additionally, in 28 genes two or more different heterozygous variants segregated in two or more families, but no gene showed consistent associations in both the family gene-burden results and gene-burden analysis in the case–control cohort. Conclusion: We identified potential candidate genes for familial CSC and managed to exclude Mendelian inheritance of variants in one or a limited number of genes. Instead, familial CSC may be a heterogeneous Mendelian disease caused by variants in many different genes, or alternatively CSC may represent a complex disease to which both environmental factors and genetics contribute.