Due to the ageing population and the rising prevalence of chronic diseases, it is expected that the demand on informal caregivers will increase. Many informal caregivers experience burden, which can have negative consequences for their own health and that of the care recipient. To prevent caregiver burden, it is important to investigate factors associated with this burden. We aimed to identify factors associated with caregiver burden in adult informal caregivers. Among a sample of adult informal caregivers (n = 1,100) of the Dutch region of Zaanstreek-Waterland, perceived caregiver burden, demographic factors, caregiving situation, health-related factors and socio-financial factors were measured as part of the national Health Survey in 2016. Using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis, for which a backward selection method was applied, associations with caregiver burden were studied. In the multivariate model, time spent providing informal care was significantly associated with perceived caregiver burden, with an odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval] of 7.52 [3.93–14.39] for those spending >16 hr compared to 1–2 hr on informal care. Also providing care to their child(ren) (OR: 2.55 [1.51–4.31]), poor perceived health (OR: 1.80 [1.20–2.68]) and loneliness of the caregiver (OR: 2.05 [1.41–2.99]) were significantly associated with caregiver burden. To possibly prevent and reduce informal caregiver burden, factors associated with such burden should be intervened on. As such, special attention should be paid to caregivers who provide many hours of care or provide care to their child(ren), as well as those who have a poor perceived health themselves and/or experience feelings of loneliness.