Objective: Infections with multidrug-resistant microorganisms are associated with increased hospitalization, medication costs and mortality. Based on our fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) experience for Clostridium difficile infection, we treated 15 patients carrying ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-EB) with FMT. Seven patients underwent a second FMT after 4 weeks when ESBL-EB remained, amounting to a total number of 22 transplants. The objective was decolonization of ESBL-EB. Results: Three out of fifteen (20%) patients were ESBL-negative at 1, 2 and 4 weeks after the first transplant, while six out of 15 (40%) were negative after the second transplant. Comparison of fecal microbiota at baseline and 4 weeks after FMT revealed restoration of microbial diversity after FMT and a microbial shift towards donor composition. Finally, we suggest several possible factors of response to therapy, such as donor-recipient microbiota match and number of FMTs. Therefore, FMT can be an effective treatment in patients carrying ESBL-EB. Response may be determined by microbiota composition and number of FMT procedures. Trial registration ISRCTN ISRCTN48328635 Registered 11 October 2017, retrospectively registered.